Zika virus – emergence, evolution, pathology, diagnosis, and control: current global scenario and future perspectives – a comprehensive review

Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Sharad Saurabh, Swati Sachan, Sunil Kumar Joshi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

This review converses the Zika virus which has attained global concern due to its rapid pandemic potential and impact on humans. Though Zika virus was first isolated in 1947, till the recent large-scale outbreak which occurred in Micronesia, in 2007, the virus was placed into the innocuous pathogen category. The World Health Organization on 1 February 2016 declared it as a ‘Public Health Emergency of International Concern.’ Of the note, American as well as Pacific Island strains/isolates is relatively closer to Asian lineage strains. The African and American strains share more than 87.5% and 95% homologies with Asian strains/isolates, respectively. Asian strains form independent clusters, except those isolated from China, suggesting relatively more diversity than African strains. Prevention and control are mainly aimed at the vector population (mosquitoes) with Aedes aegypti being the main species. Surveys in Africa and Asia indicated seropositivity in various animal species. However, so far its natural reservoir is unknown. There is an urgent need to understand why Zika virus has shifted from being a virus that caused mild illness to unforeseen birth defects as well as autoimmune-neurological problems. Unfortunately, an effective vaccine is not available yet. Availability of cryo-electron microscopy based on 3.8 Å resolution revealing mature Zika virus structure and the probable virus attachment site to host cell would provide critical insights into the development of antiviral treatments and vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-175
Number of pages26
JournalVeterinary Quarterly
Volume36
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2 2016

Keywords

  • Zika virus
  • flavivirus
  • global warming
  • review
  • zoonosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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    Singh, R. K., Dhama, K., Malik, Y. S., Ramakrishnan, M. A., Karthik, K., Tiwari, R., Saurabh, S., Sachan, S., & Joshi, S. K. (2016). Zika virus – emergence, evolution, pathology, diagnosis, and control: current global scenario and future perspectives – a comprehensive review. Veterinary Quarterly, 36(3), 150-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2016.1188333