Young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes have optimal B cell responses to the seasonal influenza vaccine

Daniela Frasca, Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Nicholas V. Mendez, Ana Marie Landin, John G. Ryan, Bonnie B. Blomberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


We evaluated immune response to the seasonal influenza vaccine in young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Immune measures included the in vivo serum response to the vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and ELISA in 22 patients (14 young, 8 elderly) and 65 healthy age-matched controls (37 young, 28 elderly). B cell-specific biomarkers of optimal vaccine response were measured ex vivo by switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and in vitro by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in stimulated cells. Markers of systemic and B cell-intrinsic inflammation were also measured. Results show that in vivo responses, as well as B cell-specific markers identified above, decrease by age in healthy individuals but not in T2D patients. This occurred despite high levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation (TNF-α) in T2D patients, which was surprising as we had previously demonstrated this negatively impacts B cell function. These results altogether suggest that valid protection against influenza can be achieved in T2D patients and proposed mechanisms are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3603-3610
Number of pages8
Issue number35
StatePublished - Aug 2 2013


  • Antibody responses
  • Inflammation
  • Influenza vaccine
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • veterinary(all)
  • Molecular Medicine


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