Workflow Caveats in Augmented Reality–Assisted Pedicle Instrumentation: Cadaver Lab

Timur M. Urakov, Michael Y. Wang, Allan D. Levi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Background: Augmented reality (AR) is gaining popularity in gaming, industrial, military, and medical fields. Neurosurgical applications are currently limited and underdeveloped. Methods: The cadaver lab session was prepared with the currently available AR equipment and software. Pedicle instrumentation was performed from thoracic 1 to the pelvis with either fluoroscopy or AR. Results: A total of 38 screws were placed. There were no major breaches on the fluoroscopy-assisted side. Among the AR screws, 3 had a major medial breach and 4 had a major inferior breach. The cause of a 3 breaches appeared to be related to an error in the starting position, as their overall orientation remained correctly parallel to the original trajectory. Conclusions: The article discusses the potential and limitations of AR in its current state and identifies strategies for successful AR application in future surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e1449-e1455
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Jun 2019


  • Augmented
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Mixed reality
  • Pedicle screw
  • Spine surgery
  • Virtual

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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