Wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients and carriers of X-linked retinoschisis

Ninel Gregori, Byron L Lam, Giovanni Gregori, Sudarshan Ranganathan, Edwin M. Stone, Alexis Morante, Fawzi Abukhalil, Potyra R. Aroucha

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Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate macular and extramacular retinal anatomy in patients and carriers of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) using a wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging technique. Design: Case series. Participants: Six XLRS-affected male subjects and 3 XLRS female carriers. Methods: The subjects prospectively underwent XLRS DNA genotyping and comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity, 30-2 Humphrey visual field, fundus photography, and wide-field SD-OCT, a montage technique to generate SD-OCT images spanning approximately 50 degrees horizontally and 35 degrees vertically of the posterior pole. Main Outcome Measures: Distribution and location of schisis cavities. Results: Among male subjects affected by XLRS, asymmetric bilateral schisis was seen in all eyes imaged with montage SD-OCT (11 eyes). Wide-field OCT images demonstrated schisis cavities only in the central macula in 6 eyes (55%), throughout the macula extending to the outside of the temporal arcades in 3 eyes (27%), and throughout the macula extending nasal to the optic nerve in 2 eyes (18%). Cystoid spaces accounting for macular splitting were present in the inner nuclear layer (INL) in all 11 eyes and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in 4 eyes. A few small cysts were seen parafoveally in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) or nerve fiber layer (NFL) in 4 eyes. Subclinical extramacular schisis spaces were seen (n=5 eyes) within the INL in 1 eye, the ONL in 1 eye, the INL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye, the ONL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye, and the INL/ONL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye. Schisis was rarely seen nasal to the optic nerve (2 eyes). Central/paracentral visual field defects were seen in 9 eyes. Female carriers did not show schisis on examination or OCT. Conclusions: Wide-field SD-OCT is a useful tool for evaluating complex retinal anatomy. In patients with XLRS, the foveomacular schisis was seen most frequently in the INL. Subclinical extramacular schisis was seen in 45% of eyes and was equally prevalent in the INL, ONL, and GCL/FNL. The GCL/FNL cystoid spaces were small and seen near the fovea and the arcades only. Carriers were schisis-free. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-174
Number of pages6
JournalOphthalmology
Volume120
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

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Retinoschisis
Optical Coherence Tomography
Ganglia
Nerve Fibers
Optic Nerve
Visual Fields
Nose
Anatomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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Wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients and carriers of X-linked retinoschisis. / Gregori, Ninel; Lam, Byron L; Gregori, Giovanni; Ranganathan, Sudarshan; Stone, Edwin M.; Morante, Alexis; Abukhalil, Fawzi; Aroucha, Potyra R.

In: Ophthalmology, Vol. 120, No. 1, 01.01.2013, p. 169-174.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gregori, Ninel ; Lam, Byron L ; Gregori, Giovanni ; Ranganathan, Sudarshan ; Stone, Edwin M. ; Morante, Alexis ; Abukhalil, Fawzi ; Aroucha, Potyra R. / Wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients and carriers of X-linked retinoschisis. In: Ophthalmology. 2013 ; Vol. 120, No. 1. pp. 169-174.
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abstract = "Purpose: To evaluate macular and extramacular retinal anatomy in patients and carriers of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) using a wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging technique. Design: Case series. Participants: Six XLRS-affected male subjects and 3 XLRS female carriers. Methods: The subjects prospectively underwent XLRS DNA genotyping and comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity, 30-2 Humphrey visual field, fundus photography, and wide-field SD-OCT, a montage technique to generate SD-OCT images spanning approximately 50 degrees horizontally and 35 degrees vertically of the posterior pole. Main Outcome Measures: Distribution and location of schisis cavities. Results: Among male subjects affected by XLRS, asymmetric bilateral schisis was seen in all eyes imaged with montage SD-OCT (11 eyes). Wide-field OCT images demonstrated schisis cavities only in the central macula in 6 eyes (55{\%}), throughout the macula extending to the outside of the temporal arcades in 3 eyes (27{\%}), and throughout the macula extending nasal to the optic nerve in 2 eyes (18{\%}). Cystoid spaces accounting for macular splitting were present in the inner nuclear layer (INL) in all 11 eyes and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in 4 eyes. A few small cysts were seen parafoveally in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) or nerve fiber layer (NFL) in 4 eyes. Subclinical extramacular schisis spaces were seen (n=5 eyes) within the INL in 1 eye, the ONL in 1 eye, the INL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye, the ONL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye, and the INL/ONL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye. Schisis was rarely seen nasal to the optic nerve (2 eyes). Central/paracentral visual field defects were seen in 9 eyes. Female carriers did not show schisis on examination or OCT. Conclusions: Wide-field SD-OCT is a useful tool for evaluating complex retinal anatomy. In patients with XLRS, the foveomacular schisis was seen most frequently in the INL. Subclinical extramacular schisis was seen in 45{\%} of eyes and was equally prevalent in the INL, ONL, and GCL/FNL. The GCL/FNL cystoid spaces were small and seen near the fovea and the arcades only. Carriers were schisis-free. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.",
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AU - Gregori, Ninel

AU - Lam, Byron L

AU - Gregori, Giovanni

AU - Ranganathan, Sudarshan

AU - Stone, Edwin M.

AU - Morante, Alexis

AU - Abukhalil, Fawzi

AU - Aroucha, Potyra R.

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N2 - Purpose: To evaluate macular and extramacular retinal anatomy in patients and carriers of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) using a wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging technique. Design: Case series. Participants: Six XLRS-affected male subjects and 3 XLRS female carriers. Methods: The subjects prospectively underwent XLRS DNA genotyping and comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity, 30-2 Humphrey visual field, fundus photography, and wide-field SD-OCT, a montage technique to generate SD-OCT images spanning approximately 50 degrees horizontally and 35 degrees vertically of the posterior pole. Main Outcome Measures: Distribution and location of schisis cavities. Results: Among male subjects affected by XLRS, asymmetric bilateral schisis was seen in all eyes imaged with montage SD-OCT (11 eyes). Wide-field OCT images demonstrated schisis cavities only in the central macula in 6 eyes (55%), throughout the macula extending to the outside of the temporal arcades in 3 eyes (27%), and throughout the macula extending nasal to the optic nerve in 2 eyes (18%). Cystoid spaces accounting for macular splitting were present in the inner nuclear layer (INL) in all 11 eyes and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in 4 eyes. A few small cysts were seen parafoveally in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) or nerve fiber layer (NFL) in 4 eyes. Subclinical extramacular schisis spaces were seen (n=5 eyes) within the INL in 1 eye, the ONL in 1 eye, the INL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye, the ONL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye, and the INL/ONL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye. Schisis was rarely seen nasal to the optic nerve (2 eyes). Central/paracentral visual field defects were seen in 9 eyes. Female carriers did not show schisis on examination or OCT. Conclusions: Wide-field SD-OCT is a useful tool for evaluating complex retinal anatomy. In patients with XLRS, the foveomacular schisis was seen most frequently in the INL. Subclinical extramacular schisis was seen in 45% of eyes and was equally prevalent in the INL, ONL, and GCL/FNL. The GCL/FNL cystoid spaces were small and seen near the fovea and the arcades only. Carriers were schisis-free. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

AB - Purpose: To evaluate macular and extramacular retinal anatomy in patients and carriers of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) using a wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging technique. Design: Case series. Participants: Six XLRS-affected male subjects and 3 XLRS female carriers. Methods: The subjects prospectively underwent XLRS DNA genotyping and comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity, 30-2 Humphrey visual field, fundus photography, and wide-field SD-OCT, a montage technique to generate SD-OCT images spanning approximately 50 degrees horizontally and 35 degrees vertically of the posterior pole. Main Outcome Measures: Distribution and location of schisis cavities. Results: Among male subjects affected by XLRS, asymmetric bilateral schisis was seen in all eyes imaged with montage SD-OCT (11 eyes). Wide-field OCT images demonstrated schisis cavities only in the central macula in 6 eyes (55%), throughout the macula extending to the outside of the temporal arcades in 3 eyes (27%), and throughout the macula extending nasal to the optic nerve in 2 eyes (18%). Cystoid spaces accounting for macular splitting were present in the inner nuclear layer (INL) in all 11 eyes and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in 4 eyes. A few small cysts were seen parafoveally in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) or nerve fiber layer (NFL) in 4 eyes. Subclinical extramacular schisis spaces were seen (n=5 eyes) within the INL in 1 eye, the ONL in 1 eye, the INL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye, the ONL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye, and the INL/ONL/GCL/NFL in 1 eye. Schisis was rarely seen nasal to the optic nerve (2 eyes). Central/paracentral visual field defects were seen in 9 eyes. Female carriers did not show schisis on examination or OCT. Conclusions: Wide-field SD-OCT is a useful tool for evaluating complex retinal anatomy. In patients with XLRS, the foveomacular schisis was seen most frequently in the INL. Subclinical extramacular schisis was seen in 45% of eyes and was equally prevalent in the INL, ONL, and GCL/FNL. The GCL/FNL cystoid spaces were small and seen near the fovea and the arcades only. Carriers were schisis-free. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

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