Who's using treatment manuals? A national survey of practicing therapists

Emily M. Becker, Ashley M. Smith, Amanda Jensen-Doss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Treatment manuals are currently the most common way treatments are disseminated to practicing clinicians, although little is known about the rates with which practicing therapists incorporate these manuals into their practice. In light of a widely acknowledged research-practice gap, understanding how often therapists are using manuals is important for shaping future dissemination efforts. This study collected data on rates of manual use among a national sample of mental health clinicians representative of those likely to be targeted in dissemination efforts (N=756), as well as predictors of use. Results indicated that few clinicians (<10%) routinely incorporated manuals into their practice, although most employed them to some degree. Predictors of manual use included greater openness to new treatments, younger age, and a cognitive-behavioral treatment orientation (ps<.05). Implications for future dissemination efforts are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)706-710
Number of pages5
JournalBehaviour Research and Therapy
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • Dissemination
  • Evidence-based practice
  • Treatment manuals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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