Where are you from? A validation of the foreigner objectification scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos

Brian E. Armenta, Richard M. Lee, Stephanie T. Pituc, Kyoung Rae Jung, Irene J K Park, José A. Soto, Su Yeong Kim, Seth J Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). The goal of the present study was to validate the Foreigner Objectification Scale, a brief self-report measure of perceived foreigner objectification, and to examine the psychological correlates of perceived foreigner objectification. Results indicated that the Foreigner Objectification Scale is structurally (i.e., factor structure) and metrically (i.e., factor loadings) invariant across foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. Scalar (i.e., latent item intercepts) invariance was demonstrated for the two foreign-born groups and the two U.S.-born groups, but not across foreign-born and U.S.-born individuals. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated that, among U.S.-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was associated with less life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms, and was indirectly associated with lower self-esteem via identity denial, operationalized as the perception that one is not viewed by others as American. Among foreign-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was not significantly associated directly with self-esteem, life satisfaction, or depressive symptoms. However, perceived foreigner objectification was positively associated with identity denial, and identity denial was negatively associated with life satisfaction. This study illustrates the relevance of perceived foreigner objectification to the psychological well-being of U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-142
Number of pages12
JournalCultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
Volume19
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2013

Fingerprint

objectification
Asian Americans
Hispanic Americans
Psychology
satisfaction with life
national minority
self-esteem
stereotype
Self Concept
Group
Depression
structural model
Structural Models
Self Report
well-being

Keywords

  • Objectification
  • Perceived discrimination
  • Perpetual foreigner

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this

Where are you from? A validation of the foreigner objectification scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos. / Armenta, Brian E.; Lee, Richard M.; Pituc, Stephanie T.; Jung, Kyoung Rae; Park, Irene J K; Soto, José A.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.

In: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, Vol. 19, No. 2, 01.04.2013, p. 131-142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Armenta, Brian E. ; Lee, Richard M. ; Pituc, Stephanie T. ; Jung, Kyoung Rae ; Park, Irene J K ; Soto, José A. ; Kim, Su Yeong ; Schwartz, Seth J. / Where are you from? A validation of the foreigner objectification scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos. In: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 2013 ; Vol. 19, No. 2. pp. 131-142.
@article{555f0184aba8490ebb770628f19800f3,
title = "Where are you from? A validation of the foreigner objectification scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos",
abstract = "Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). The goal of the present study was to validate the Foreigner Objectification Scale, a brief self-report measure of perceived foreigner objectification, and to examine the psychological correlates of perceived foreigner objectification. Results indicated that the Foreigner Objectification Scale is structurally (i.e., factor structure) and metrically (i.e., factor loadings) invariant across foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. Scalar (i.e., latent item intercepts) invariance was demonstrated for the two foreign-born groups and the two U.S.-born groups, but not across foreign-born and U.S.-born individuals. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated that, among U.S.-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was associated with less life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms, and was indirectly associated with lower self-esteem via identity denial, operationalized as the perception that one is not viewed by others as American. Among foreign-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was not significantly associated directly with self-esteem, life satisfaction, or depressive symptoms. However, perceived foreigner objectification was positively associated with identity denial, and identity denial was negatively associated with life satisfaction. This study illustrates the relevance of perceived foreigner objectification to the psychological well-being of U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos.",
keywords = "Objectification, Perceived discrimination, Perpetual foreigner",
author = "Armenta, {Brian E.} and Lee, {Richard M.} and Pituc, {Stephanie T.} and Jung, {Kyoung Rae} and Park, {Irene J K} and Soto, {Jos{\'e} A.} and Kim, {Su Yeong} and Schwartz, {Seth J}",
year = "2013",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/a0031547",
language = "English",
volume = "19",
pages = "131--142",
journal = "Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology",
issn = "1099-9809",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Where are you from? A validation of the foreigner objectification scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos

AU - Armenta, Brian E.

AU - Lee, Richard M.

AU - Pituc, Stephanie T.

AU - Jung, Kyoung Rae

AU - Park, Irene J K

AU - Soto, José A.

AU - Kim, Su Yeong

AU - Schwartz, Seth J

PY - 2013/4/1

Y1 - 2013/4/1

N2 - Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). The goal of the present study was to validate the Foreigner Objectification Scale, a brief self-report measure of perceived foreigner objectification, and to examine the psychological correlates of perceived foreigner objectification. Results indicated that the Foreigner Objectification Scale is structurally (i.e., factor structure) and metrically (i.e., factor loadings) invariant across foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. Scalar (i.e., latent item intercepts) invariance was demonstrated for the two foreign-born groups and the two U.S.-born groups, but not across foreign-born and U.S.-born individuals. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated that, among U.S.-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was associated with less life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms, and was indirectly associated with lower self-esteem via identity denial, operationalized as the perception that one is not viewed by others as American. Among foreign-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was not significantly associated directly with self-esteem, life satisfaction, or depressive symptoms. However, perceived foreigner objectification was positively associated with identity denial, and identity denial was negatively associated with life satisfaction. This study illustrates the relevance of perceived foreigner objectification to the psychological well-being of U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos.

AB - Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). The goal of the present study was to validate the Foreigner Objectification Scale, a brief self-report measure of perceived foreigner objectification, and to examine the psychological correlates of perceived foreigner objectification. Results indicated that the Foreigner Objectification Scale is structurally (i.e., factor structure) and metrically (i.e., factor loadings) invariant across foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. Scalar (i.e., latent item intercepts) invariance was demonstrated for the two foreign-born groups and the two U.S.-born groups, but not across foreign-born and U.S.-born individuals. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated that, among U.S.-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was associated with less life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms, and was indirectly associated with lower self-esteem via identity denial, operationalized as the perception that one is not viewed by others as American. Among foreign-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was not significantly associated directly with self-esteem, life satisfaction, or depressive symptoms. However, perceived foreigner objectification was positively associated with identity denial, and identity denial was negatively associated with life satisfaction. This study illustrates the relevance of perceived foreigner objectification to the psychological well-being of U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos.

KW - Objectification

KW - Perceived discrimination

KW - Perpetual foreigner

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84877358535&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84877358535&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/a0031547

DO - 10.1037/a0031547

M3 - Article

C2 - 23647327

AN - SCOPUS:84877358535

VL - 19

SP - 131

EP - 142

JO - Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology

JF - Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology

SN - 1099-9809

IS - 2

ER -