What immunological defects predispose to non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infections?

Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M. Adcock

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil. NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system. NTM are also found in many subjects without any known risk factors. Although the recent advances in imaging and microbiologic techniques including gene sequencing have provided a better view of the problems caused by NTM and has enhanced our understanding of the disease, many uncertainties regarding the immunologic response to NTM still exist. There is also limited data on the immunogenetics of NTM infection. Here, the authors reviewed the main immunogenetic defects as well as other immunological conditions which are associated with an increased the risk of NTM infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-109
Number of pages10
JournalIranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Immunodeficiency
  • Interferon
  • Interleukin-12
  • Lung disease
  • Non-tuberculous mycobacteria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


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