Well-being self-efficacy and complier average causal effect estimation: A substantive-methodological synergy

Nicholas Myers, Isaac Prilleltensky, Christopher R. Hill, Deborah L. Feltz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Objectives The purpose of this manuscript was to provide a substantive (i.e., well-being self-efficacy) – methodological (i.e., complier average causal effect estimation) synergy of potential importance to future research in the psychology of sport and exercise with secondary data analyses from the Fun For Wellness intervention. Fun For Wellness is a new on-line intervention designed to promote growth in well-being. Well-being self-efficacy is a proposed mechanism by which the effect of Fun For Wellness on well-being may be transmitted. Complier average causal effect estimation is a methodology that estimates the effect of complying with an intervention. Design The study design was a prospective, double-blind, parallel group randomized controlled trial (RCT) detailed in Myers, Prilleltensky, et al. (2016). Data were collected at baseline, 30 days- and 60 days-post baseline. A total of 479 adult employees at a major university in the southeast of the United States of America were enrolled. Method A two-class linear regression model with complier average causal effect estimation was fitted to well-being self-efficacy scores at 30- and 60-days. Results The adjusted mean difference in well-being self-efficacy scores for participants who complied with the intervention, as compared to potential compliers in the Usual Care group, was equal to 0.21, p = 0.061, Cohen's d = 0.36 at 30-days and 0.28, p = 0.050, Cohen's d = 0.49 at 60-days. Conclusion Complier average causal effect estimation may be a useful approach for RCTs in sport and exercise psychology when at least some of the participants do not comply with the intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-144
Number of pages10
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
StatePublished - May 1 2017


  • Fun For Wellness
  • Mixture modeling
  • On-line intervention
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • Self-efficacy theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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