Weight distribution symmetry during the sit-to-stand movement of unilateral transtibial amputees

Vibhor Agrawal, Robert Gailey, Ignacio Gaunaurd, Gailey Robert, Christopher O'Toole

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


This study characterises weight distribution symmetry between the intact and amputated limbs of unilateral transtibial amputees during a sit-to-stand movement. A total of 12 amputees and 12 age-matched, non-amputees performed the activity for two conditions - rising with and without chair arm-rest assistance. The sit-to-stand movement was divided into five events: Pre-Ascent; Ascent Initiation; Seat-Off; Deceleration; Standing. Symmetry in ground reaction forces between limbs was calculated at each event together with the rise time. Results indicate that during the course of the movement, amputees increased loading of the intact limb by approximately 27%, resulting in a significant asymmetry at seat-off and deceleration events. Non-amputees loaded the dominant limb more than the non-dominant limb throughout the activity but did not exhibit substantial weight shifts. Weight distribution symmetry was not significantly different between the two rising conditions in either population. Amputees had significantly longer rise times than non-amputees only while rising without arm-rest assistance. Statement of Relevance: Sit-to-stand movements are performed frequently every day. Incorrect movement biomechanics caused by musculoskeletal impairments can lead to reduced functional independence and secondary co-morbidities. This study defines five events of a sit-to-stand cycle and is the first to address asymmetries of transtibial amputees, providing ergonomic insights for clinical assessment and intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)656-664
Number of pages9
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011


  • Amputee biomechanics
  • Assisted rising
  • Clinical movement analysis
  • Sit-to-stand events
  • Standing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Weight distribution symmetry during the sit-to-stand movement of unilateral transtibial amputees'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this