Elastic moduli of water saturated sedimentary rocks have in some cases been found to be lower than what would be expected from Gassmann-substitution of moduli for rocks in the dry state, Such water weakening of elastic moduli of carbonate sedimentary rocks may be discussed by effective medium modeling. In the present case we use the iso-frame model, which is based on upper Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for mixtures of a stiff carbonate frame and a suspension of carbonate particles in fluid. The proportion of carbonate in the frame is given as the iso-frame value ranging from zero to one. We model ultrasonic compressional wave and shear wave data for dry and water saturated samples from a range of geological settings. Our modeling indicates that water weakening is related to permeability. Samples with permeability up to 1 mD have relatively high water weakening possibly as a consequence of fluid interaction with the relatively frequent crystal contacts in the low-permeability samples. For samples with permeability above 100 mD we rather find a stiffening of water saturated samples. This may be a dispersion effect, as high permeability and high frequency may cause the water in the water saturated samples to move out of phase with the solid during propagation of the sonic wave and thus cause a stiffening effect.
- Borehole geophysics
- Bulk modulus
- Rock physics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology