Water-Soluble Vitamin E—Tocopheryl Phosphate

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

6 Scopus citations


The hydrophobicity of vitamin E poses transport and metabolic challenges to regulate its bioavailability and to prevent its accumulation in lipid-rich tissues such as adipose tissue, brain, and liver. Water-soluble precursors of vitamin E (α-tocopherol, αT), such as its esters with acetate (αTA), succinate (αTS), or phosphate (αTP), have increased solubility in water and stability against reaction with free radicals, but they are rapidly converted during their uptake into the lipid-soluble vitamin E. Therefore, the bioavailability of these precursors as intact molecules is low; nevertheless, at least for αTS and αTP, the recent research has revealed unique regulatory effects on signal transduction and gene expression and the modulation of cellular events ranging from proliferation, survival/apoptosis, lipid uptake and metabolism, phagocytosis, long term potentiation, cell migration, telomere maintenance, and angiogenesis. Moreover, water-soluble derivatives of vitamin E including some based on αTP are increasingly used as components of nanocarriers for enhanced and targeted delivery of drugs and other molecules (vitamins, including αT and αTP itself, vitamin D3, carnosine, caffeine, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), insulin) and cofactors such as coenzyme Q10. In this review, the chemical characteristics, transport, metabolic pathways, and molecular mechanisms of action of αTP in cells and tissues are summarized and put into perspective with its possible role in the prevention of a number of diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Food and Nutrition Research
EditorsN.A. Michael Eskin
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages53
StatePublished - 2018

Publication series

NameAdvances in Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print)1043-4526


  • Analogs
  • Apoptosis
  • Carriers
  • CD36
  • Chaperones
  • Gene expression
  • Lipid exchange
  • Lipid transport proteins
  • Signal transduction
  • SR-BI
  • Vitamin E
  • “Mitocan”

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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