Water pH and aluminum chemistry in the gill micro-environment of rainbow trout during acid and aluminum exposures

Richard C. Playle, Chris M. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to acidic soft water (pHin4.2-6.3) in the presence (93 μg·l-1) or absence of Al. Fish were fitted with latex masks and opercular catheters to measure ventilation {Mathematical expression}, pH changes at the gills, O2 consumption {Mathematical expression}, ammonia excretion {Mathematical expression}, and Al extraction. During 2-3-h exposures, {Mathematical expression} was generally higher in Al-exposed fish over the pHin range 4.7-6.3. Alkalinization of expired water was about 0.3 pH units less in Al-exposed fish than in acid-only exposed fish at pHin 4.5-5.2, an effect attributable to both increased {Mathematical expression} and to buffering by Al. During 44-h exposures to pHin 5.2 and 4.8 plus Al, {Mathematical expression} increased greatly and expired water pH (pHex) decreased with time. There was a small increase in {Mathematical expression} over 44 h at pH 4.4 plus Al, and no changes in pHex. In contrast, during 44-h exposures to pH 5.2, 4.8, and 4.4 in the absence of Al, such changes were much smaller or absent. During both short- and longerterm exposures, measured Al accumulation on the gills was only 5-18% of that calculated from cumulative Al extraction from the water, suggesting considerable sloughing of Al. In free-swimming trout, gill Al accumulation was greatest during exposure (2h) to Al at pH 5.2, lower at pH 4.8, and least at pH 4.4 and 4.0. Our results suggest that Al deposition occurs at the gills, causing respiratory and ionoregulatory toxicity, because the pH in the branchial micro-environment is raised above that in the acidic inspired soft water. Higher pH at fish gills may result in Al precipitation due to loss of solubility, or Al accumulation because of shifts in Al species to Al-hydroxide forms which more readily adsorb to the gills.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-550
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Comparative Physiology B
Volume159
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 1989

Fingerprint

Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
Fish
rainbow
aluminum
gills
chemistry
Acids
Water
acids
acid
fish
Fishes
water
alkalinization
Catheters
Latex
buffering
Ammonia
excretion

Keywords

  • Aluminum
  • Gills
  • pH
  • Trout
  • Water chemistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Physiology
  • Animal Science and Zoology

Cite this

Water pH and aluminum chemistry in the gill micro-environment of rainbow trout during acid and aluminum exposures. / Playle, Richard C.; Wood, Chris M.

In: Journal of Comparative Physiology B, Vol. 159, No. 5, 01.09.1989, p. 539-550.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{51d6c611df874f458029fd8171807878,
title = "Water pH and aluminum chemistry in the gill micro-environment of rainbow trout during acid and aluminum exposures",
abstract = "Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to acidic soft water (pHin4.2-6.3) in the presence (93 μg·l-1) or absence of Al. Fish were fitted with latex masks and opercular catheters to measure ventilation {Mathematical expression}, pH changes at the gills, O2 consumption {Mathematical expression}, ammonia excretion {Mathematical expression}, and Al extraction. During 2-3-h exposures, {Mathematical expression} was generally higher in Al-exposed fish over the pHin range 4.7-6.3. Alkalinization of expired water was about 0.3 pH units less in Al-exposed fish than in acid-only exposed fish at pHin 4.5-5.2, an effect attributable to both increased {Mathematical expression} and to buffering by Al. During 44-h exposures to pHin 5.2 and 4.8 plus Al, {Mathematical expression} increased greatly and expired water pH (pHex) decreased with time. There was a small increase in {Mathematical expression} over 44 h at pH 4.4 plus Al, and no changes in pHex. In contrast, during 44-h exposures to pH 5.2, 4.8, and 4.4 in the absence of Al, such changes were much smaller or absent. During both short- and longerterm exposures, measured Al accumulation on the gills was only 5-18{\%} of that calculated from cumulative Al extraction from the water, suggesting considerable sloughing of Al. In free-swimming trout, gill Al accumulation was greatest during exposure (2h) to Al at pH 5.2, lower at pH 4.8, and least at pH 4.4 and 4.0. Our results suggest that Al deposition occurs at the gills, causing respiratory and ionoregulatory toxicity, because the pH in the branchial micro-environment is raised above that in the acidic inspired soft water. Higher pH at fish gills may result in Al precipitation due to loss of solubility, or Al accumulation because of shifts in Al species to Al-hydroxide forms which more readily adsorb to the gills.",
keywords = "Aluminum, Gills, pH, Trout, Water chemistry",
author = "Playle, {Richard C.} and Wood, {Chris M.}",
year = "1989",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/BF00694378",
language = "English",
volume = "159",
pages = "539--550",
journal = "Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology",
issn = "0174-1578",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Water pH and aluminum chemistry in the gill micro-environment of rainbow trout during acid and aluminum exposures

AU - Playle, Richard C.

AU - Wood, Chris M.

PY - 1989/9/1

Y1 - 1989/9/1

N2 - Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to acidic soft water (pHin4.2-6.3) in the presence (93 μg·l-1) or absence of Al. Fish were fitted with latex masks and opercular catheters to measure ventilation {Mathematical expression}, pH changes at the gills, O2 consumption {Mathematical expression}, ammonia excretion {Mathematical expression}, and Al extraction. During 2-3-h exposures, {Mathematical expression} was generally higher in Al-exposed fish over the pHin range 4.7-6.3. Alkalinization of expired water was about 0.3 pH units less in Al-exposed fish than in acid-only exposed fish at pHin 4.5-5.2, an effect attributable to both increased {Mathematical expression} and to buffering by Al. During 44-h exposures to pHin 5.2 and 4.8 plus Al, {Mathematical expression} increased greatly and expired water pH (pHex) decreased with time. There was a small increase in {Mathematical expression} over 44 h at pH 4.4 plus Al, and no changes in pHex. In contrast, during 44-h exposures to pH 5.2, 4.8, and 4.4 in the absence of Al, such changes were much smaller or absent. During both short- and longerterm exposures, measured Al accumulation on the gills was only 5-18% of that calculated from cumulative Al extraction from the water, suggesting considerable sloughing of Al. In free-swimming trout, gill Al accumulation was greatest during exposure (2h) to Al at pH 5.2, lower at pH 4.8, and least at pH 4.4 and 4.0. Our results suggest that Al deposition occurs at the gills, causing respiratory and ionoregulatory toxicity, because the pH in the branchial micro-environment is raised above that in the acidic inspired soft water. Higher pH at fish gills may result in Al precipitation due to loss of solubility, or Al accumulation because of shifts in Al species to Al-hydroxide forms which more readily adsorb to the gills.

AB - Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to acidic soft water (pHin4.2-6.3) in the presence (93 μg·l-1) or absence of Al. Fish were fitted with latex masks and opercular catheters to measure ventilation {Mathematical expression}, pH changes at the gills, O2 consumption {Mathematical expression}, ammonia excretion {Mathematical expression}, and Al extraction. During 2-3-h exposures, {Mathematical expression} was generally higher in Al-exposed fish over the pHin range 4.7-6.3. Alkalinization of expired water was about 0.3 pH units less in Al-exposed fish than in acid-only exposed fish at pHin 4.5-5.2, an effect attributable to both increased {Mathematical expression} and to buffering by Al. During 44-h exposures to pHin 5.2 and 4.8 plus Al, {Mathematical expression} increased greatly and expired water pH (pHex) decreased with time. There was a small increase in {Mathematical expression} over 44 h at pH 4.4 plus Al, and no changes in pHex. In contrast, during 44-h exposures to pH 5.2, 4.8, and 4.4 in the absence of Al, such changes were much smaller or absent. During both short- and longerterm exposures, measured Al accumulation on the gills was only 5-18% of that calculated from cumulative Al extraction from the water, suggesting considerable sloughing of Al. In free-swimming trout, gill Al accumulation was greatest during exposure (2h) to Al at pH 5.2, lower at pH 4.8, and least at pH 4.4 and 4.0. Our results suggest that Al deposition occurs at the gills, causing respiratory and ionoregulatory toxicity, because the pH in the branchial micro-environment is raised above that in the acidic inspired soft water. Higher pH at fish gills may result in Al precipitation due to loss of solubility, or Al accumulation because of shifts in Al species to Al-hydroxide forms which more readily adsorb to the gills.

KW - Aluminum

KW - Gills

KW - pH

KW - Trout

KW - Water chemistry

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024826945&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024826945&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF00694378

DO - 10.1007/BF00694378

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0024826945

VL - 159

SP - 539

EP - 550

JO - Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

JF - Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

SN - 0174-1578

IS - 5

ER -