Volume changes for mixing the major sea salts: Equations valid to ionic strength 3.0 and temperature 95°C

Leslie M. Connaughton, Frank J Millero, Kenneth S. Pitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Equations in the ion-interaction (Pitzer) system are derived for the volume change on mixing any combination of the sea salts NaCl, Na2SO4, MgSO4, MgCl2 at constant ionic strenth. For these mixings of different charge types, the equations include complex differences of pure electrolyte terms. Recently measured data for each of the pure electrolytes provide these pure electrolyte terms. Other recent measurements on the volume change on mixing are compared with values calculated from the equations. At 25°C there is no need to introduce the mixing terms based on differences in the interactions of ions of the same sign. At other temperatures, the agreement without the mixing terms is good, but significant improvement is obtained by inclusion of the binary mixing terms θCl,SO4v and θNa,Mgv. The equations and parameters can then predict the volumetric properties of any mixed solution of these salts over the range 0-100°C and to at least 3 mol-kg-1 ionic strength.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1007-1017
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Solution Chemistry
Volume18
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1989

Fingerprint

Ionic strength
Oceans and Seas
Osmolar Concentration
Electrolytes
Salts
salts
Temperature
Ions
Magnesium Chloride
electrolytes
temperature
ions
interactions
inclusions

Keywords

  • densities
  • MgCl
  • MgSO
  • NaSO
  • NaCl
  • Sea salts
  • volumes of mixing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

Volume changes for mixing the major sea salts : Equations valid to ionic strength 3.0 and temperature 95°C. / Connaughton, Leslie M.; Millero, Frank J; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

In: Journal of Solution Chemistry, Vol. 18, No. 11, 11.1989, p. 1007-1017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Connaughton, Leslie M. ; Millero, Frank J ; Pitzer, Kenneth S. / Volume changes for mixing the major sea salts : Equations valid to ionic strength 3.0 and temperature 95°C. In: Journal of Solution Chemistry. 1989 ; Vol. 18, No. 11. pp. 1007-1017.
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