Voltage-switchable artificial muscles actuating at near neutral pH

Elizabeth A. Moschou, Marc J. Madou, Leonidas G Bachas, Sylvia Daunert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Novel artificial muscle materials were developed, which can be electrically actuated at near neutral pH environments by low applied potential (3 V or less). The artificial muscle material is based on a hydrogel that is composed of acrylamide and a carboxylic acid derivative, such as acrylic acid, and is doped with a polypyrrole/carbon black composite. The electroactuation response of the artificial muscle is optimized in terms of the constituents of the hydrogel precursor solution and the polymerization conditions. It is shown that the introduction of the dicarboxylic acid monomer maleic acid increases the osmotic pressure arising at the hydrogel/electrolyte interface, increasing the bending response of the material. Additionally, the increase of the polymerization temperature and the use of the crosslinking agent N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, which promotes intermolecular interactions within the hydrogel network, result in the development of artificial muscles with increased and reproducible electroactuation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-383
Number of pages5
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Volume115
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 23 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Hydrogel
muscles
Hydrogels
Muscle
Electric potential
electric potential
Acids
polymerization
Polymerization
Soot
Dicarboxylic Acids
osmosis
Acrylamide
dicarboxylic acids
polypyrroles
Polypyrroles
acrylic acid
crosslinking
Carboxylic Acids
Carbon black

Keywords

  • Artificial muscle
  • Electroactuation
  • Hydrogel
  • Neutral pH environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Voltage-switchable artificial muscles actuating at near neutral pH. / Moschou, Elizabeth A.; Madou, Marc J.; Bachas, Leonidas G; Daunert, Sylvia.

In: Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, Vol. 115, No. 1, 23.05.2006, p. 379-383.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{94c3e6cef24f40a7a1d857bcebff3fb8,
title = "Voltage-switchable artificial muscles actuating at near neutral pH",
abstract = "Novel artificial muscle materials were developed, which can be electrically actuated at near neutral pH environments by low applied potential (3 V or less). The artificial muscle material is based on a hydrogel that is composed of acrylamide and a carboxylic acid derivative, such as acrylic acid, and is doped with a polypyrrole/carbon black composite. The electroactuation response of the artificial muscle is optimized in terms of the constituents of the hydrogel precursor solution and the polymerization conditions. It is shown that the introduction of the dicarboxylic acid monomer maleic acid increases the osmotic pressure arising at the hydrogel/electrolyte interface, increasing the bending response of the material. Additionally, the increase of the polymerization temperature and the use of the crosslinking agent N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, which promotes intermolecular interactions within the hydrogel network, result in the development of artificial muscles with increased and reproducible electroactuation.",
keywords = "Artificial muscle, Electroactuation, Hydrogel, Neutral pH environment",
author = "Moschou, {Elizabeth A.} and Madou, {Marc J.} and Bachas, {Leonidas G} and Sylvia Daunert",
year = "2006",
month = "5",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1016/j.snb.2005.09.021",
language = "English",
volume = "115",
pages = "379--383",
journal = "Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical",
issn = "0925-4005",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Voltage-switchable artificial muscles actuating at near neutral pH

AU - Moschou, Elizabeth A.

AU - Madou, Marc J.

AU - Bachas, Leonidas G

AU - Daunert, Sylvia

PY - 2006/5/23

Y1 - 2006/5/23

N2 - Novel artificial muscle materials were developed, which can be electrically actuated at near neutral pH environments by low applied potential (3 V or less). The artificial muscle material is based on a hydrogel that is composed of acrylamide and a carboxylic acid derivative, such as acrylic acid, and is doped with a polypyrrole/carbon black composite. The electroactuation response of the artificial muscle is optimized in terms of the constituents of the hydrogel precursor solution and the polymerization conditions. It is shown that the introduction of the dicarboxylic acid monomer maleic acid increases the osmotic pressure arising at the hydrogel/electrolyte interface, increasing the bending response of the material. Additionally, the increase of the polymerization temperature and the use of the crosslinking agent N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, which promotes intermolecular interactions within the hydrogel network, result in the development of artificial muscles with increased and reproducible electroactuation.

AB - Novel artificial muscle materials were developed, which can be electrically actuated at near neutral pH environments by low applied potential (3 V or less). The artificial muscle material is based on a hydrogel that is composed of acrylamide and a carboxylic acid derivative, such as acrylic acid, and is doped with a polypyrrole/carbon black composite. The electroactuation response of the artificial muscle is optimized in terms of the constituents of the hydrogel precursor solution and the polymerization conditions. It is shown that the introduction of the dicarboxylic acid monomer maleic acid increases the osmotic pressure arising at the hydrogel/electrolyte interface, increasing the bending response of the material. Additionally, the increase of the polymerization temperature and the use of the crosslinking agent N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, which promotes intermolecular interactions within the hydrogel network, result in the development of artificial muscles with increased and reproducible electroactuation.

KW - Artificial muscle

KW - Electroactuation

KW - Hydrogel

KW - Neutral pH environment

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33645751195&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33645751195&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.snb.2005.09.021

DO - 10.1016/j.snb.2005.09.021

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33645751195

VL - 115

SP - 379

EP - 383

JO - Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical

JF - Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical

SN - 0925-4005

IS - 1

ER -