Vitamin D Modulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism and mTOR Enforces Stress Adaptations and Anticancer Responses

Mikayla Quigley, Sandra Rieger, Enrico Capobianco, Zheng Wang, Hengguang Zhao, Martin Hewison, Thomas S. Lisse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The relationship between the active form of vitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), two integral signaling molecules of the cell, is poorly understood. This is striking, given that both factors are involved in cancer cell regulation and metabolism. Mitochondria (mt) dysfunction is one of the main drivers of cancer, producing more mitochondria, higher cellular energy, and ROS that can enhance oxidative stress and stress tolerance responses. To study the effects of 1,25(OH)2D on metabolic and mt dysfunction, we used the vitamin D receptor (VDR)-sensitive MG-63 osteosarcoma cell model. Using biochemical approaches, 1,25(OH)2D decreased mt ROS levels, membrane potential (ΔΨmt), biogenesis, and translation, while enforcing endoplasmic reticulum/mitohormetic stress adaptive responses. Using a mitochondria-focused transcriptomic approach, gene set enrichment and pathway analyses show that 1,25(OH)2D lowered mt fusion/fission and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). By contrast, mitophagy, ROS defense, and epigenetic gene regulation were enhanced after 1,25(OH)2D treatment, as well as key metabolic enzymes that regulate fluxes of substrates for cellular architecture and a shift toward non-oxidative energy metabolism. ATACseq revealed putative oxi-sensitive and tumor-suppressing transcription factors that may regulate important mt functional genes such as the mTORC1 inhibitor, DDIT4/REDD1. DDIT4/REDD1 was predominantly localized to the outer mt membrane in untreated MG-63 cells yet sequestered in the cytoplasm after 1,25(OH)2D and rotenone treatments, suggesting a level of control by membrane depolarization to facilitate its cytoplasmic mTORC1 inhibitory function. The results show that 1,25(OH)2D activates distinct adaptive metabolic responses involving mitochondria to regain redox balance and control the growth of osteosarcoma cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJBMR Plus
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • BONE
  • CANCER
  • CYP24A1
  • DDIT4
  • METABOLISM
  • MG-63
  • MITOCHONDRIA
  • OSTEOBLAST
  • OSTEOSARCOMA
  • REDD1
  • ROS
  • SOD
  • SOD1
  • SOD2
  • STRESS
  • TUMOR
  • UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE
  • VDR
  • VITAMIN D
  • VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY
  • VITAMIN D RECEPTOR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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