Vitamin D and ω-3 Supplementations in Mediterranean Diet During the 1st Year of Overt Type 1 Diabetes: A Cohort Study

Francesco Cadario, Erica Pozzi, Stefano Rizzollo, Marta Stracuzzi, Sheila Beux, Alberto Giorgis, Deborah Carrera, Fabiola Fullin, Sergio Riso, Angela Maria Rizzo, Gigliola Montorfano, Marco Bagnati, Umberto Dianzani, Philippe Caimmi, Gianni Bona, Camillo Ricordi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Vitamin D and omega 3 fatty acid (ω-3) co-supplementation potentially improves type 1 diabetes (T1D) by attenuating autoimmunity and counteracting inflammation. This cohort study, preliminary to a randomized control trial (RCT), is aimed at evaluating, in a series of T1D children assuming Mediterranean diet and an intake of cholecalciferol of 1000U/day from T1D onset, if ω-3 co-supplementation preserves the residual endogen insulin secretion (REIS). Therefore, the cohort of 22 "new onsets" of 2017 received ω-3 (eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 60 mg/kg/day), and were compared retrospectively vs. the 37 "previous onsets" without ω-3 supplementation. Glicosilated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), the daily insulin demand (IU/Kg/day) and IDAA1c, a composite index (calculated as IU/Kg/day × 4 + HbA1c%), as surrogates of REIS, were evaluated at recruitment (T0) and 12 months later (T12). In the ω-3 supplemented group, dietary intakes were evaluated at T0 and T12. As an outcome, a decreased insulin demand (p < 0.01), particularly as pre-meal boluses (p < 0.01), and IDAA1c (p < 0.05), were found in the ω-3 supplemented group, while HbA1c% was not significantly different. Diet analysis in the ω-3 supplemented group, at T12 vs. T0, highlighted that the intake of arachidonic acid (AA) decreased (p < 0.01). At T0, the AA intake was inversely correlated with HbA1c% (p < 0.05; r;. 0.411). In conclusion, the results suggest that vitamin D plus ω-3 co-supplementation as well as AA reduction in the Mediterranean diet display benefits for T1D children at onset and deserve further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 9 2019

Keywords

  • AA/EPA ratio
  • arachidonic acid
  • cholecalciferol
  • DHA
  • EPA
  • honeymoon period
  • omega3
  • remission period
  • type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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    Cadario, F., Pozzi, E., Rizzollo, S., Stracuzzi, M., Beux, S., Giorgis, A., Carrera, D., Fullin, F., Riso, S., Rizzo, A. M., Montorfano, G., Bagnati, M., Dianzani, U., Caimmi, P., Bona, G., & Ricordi, C. (2019). Vitamin D and ω-3 Supplementations in Mediterranean Diet During the 1st Year of Overt Type 1 Diabetes: A Cohort Study. Nutrients, 11(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092158