Vitamin D: A regulator of metabolism and inflammation

Evan P. Cherniack, Kenneth Seldeen, Bruce R. Troen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Vitamin D, a calciotropic hormone, is gaining attention for many aspects of health, particularly metabolic regulation. As societal trends towards increasing caloric intake become more prominent, the concern for diseases stemming from chronic inflammation grows. Excess caloric intake results in increased lipid and fatty acid storage in adipose tissue leading to adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Adipocytes produce cytokines and adipose-related hormones and can promote a systematic chronic proinflammatory state with the development of the metabolic syndrome and increasing risk of cardiovascular disease. Proinflammatory cytokines can signal immunocytes to injure the pancreas and endothelium. This, in turn can result in a reduction in insulin secretion and increasing insulin resistance. Vitamin D may possess therapeutic potential for metabolism associated diseases, as a result of its role in metabolic regulation and its action on adipo-cytes and myocytes. Vitamin D inhibits adipocyte maturation and differentiation, and reduces the production of proin-flammatory cytokines and adipose- related hormones by adipocytes. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the current literature on the therapeutic potential of vitamin D repletion in the treatment and prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Although associations exist between vitamin D insufficiency and obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular and all- cause mortality, there have not been prospective trials that have demonstrated the benefit of vitamin D in alleviating manifestations of disease. Nevertheless, correction of vitamin D insufficiency would be expected to confer many health benefits. A greater understanding of the interaction of vitamin D with not only adipose tissue but other components of the human metabolic regulatory system, such as the hypothalamus, pancreas, and bone, may help tailor interventions including vitamin D supplementations that address cardiovascular disease and obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-11
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Nutrition and Food Science
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

    Fingerprint

Keywords

  • Adipocyte
  • Energy
  • Proinflammatory cytokines
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Food Science

Cite this