Mycobacterium infection caused by non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTBM) organisms is becoming more common. Although NTBM osteomyelitis is unusual, it can occur in otherwise healthy individuals, but it is also associated with immunocompromised states, such as steroidal therapy and AIDS, and may be observed following trauma. Mycobacterium avium is reported to be the most common causative agent, and Mycobacterium abscessus has only been described in two cases. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with history of hepatitis C diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the thoracic spine caused by M abscessus. We present a literature review of NTBM osteomyelitis and a discussion of its diagnosis and treatment.
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