Validation of an LDH assay for assessing nanoparticle toxicity

Xianglu Han, Robert Gelein, Nancy Corson, Pamela Wade-Mercer, Jingkun Jiang, Pratim Biswas, Jacob N. Finkelstein, Alison Elder, Günter Oberdörster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

169 Scopus citations


Studies showed that certain cytotoxicity assays were not suitable for assessing nanoparticle (NP) toxicity. We evaluated a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for assessing copper (Cu-40, 40nm), silver (Ag-35, 35nm; Ag-40, 40nm), and titanium dioxide (TiO2-25, 25nm) NPs by examining their potential to inactivate LDH and interference with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a substrate for the assay. We also performed a dissolution assay for some of the NPs. We found that the copper NPs, because of their high dissolution rate, could interfere with the LDH assay by inactivating LDH. Ag-35 could also inactivate LDH probably because of the carbon matrix used to cage the particles during synthesis. TiO2-25 NPs were found to adsorb LDH molecules. In conclusion, NP interference with the LDH assay depends on the type of NPs and the suitability of the assay for assessing NP toxicity should be examined case by case.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-104
Number of pages6
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Sep 5 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Cytotoxicity
  • Dissolution assay
  • LDH assay
  • NADH
  • Nanoparticle
  • Titanium dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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