Using molecular testing to improve the management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology: an institutional experience with review of molecular alterations

Ryan E. Glass, Jonathan D. Marotti, Darcy A. Kerr, Joshua J. Levy, Louis J. Vaickus, Edward J. Gutmann, Laura J. Tafe, Samaneh A. Motanagh, Meredith J. Sorensen, Louise Davies, Xiaoying Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Molecular testing has helped clinicians and cytopathologists to further categorize indeterminate thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of commercially available molecular tests, review their effects on patient treatment, and correlate the molecular alterations with the histologic findings. Materials and methods: A pathology laboratory information system search identified thyroid FNAs performed at our institution between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2020. The results of surgical follow-up and ancillary molecular testing were collected. We evaluated the accuracy of these tests and whether they could reduce the number of surgeries performed. Results: Our laboratory information system search identified 510 cases reported as atypia of undetermined significance, 94 as suspicious for follicular neoplasm, and 44 as suspicious for follicular neoplasm, Hurthle cell type. Of the specimens, 343 had no ancillary molecular testing, 146 were sent for ThyGenX/ThyraMIR, and 136 were sent for ThyroSeq. Of the patients without molecular testing, 50.4% had undergone follow-up surgery compared with 30.8% after ThyGenX/ThyraMIR and 38.2% after ThyroSeq testing, resulting in 38.9% and 24.2% fewer surgeries and an odds ratio of 0.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.33) and 0.14 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.95), respectively. For ThyGenX/ThyraMIR testing, the risk of malignancy for high and moderate to high risk alterations was 80%, 28.6% for moderate and low to moderate risk alterations, and 23.1% for low risk alterations. For ThyroSeq, the risk of malignancy was 87.5% for high risk alterations, 36.8% for intermediate to high risk alterations, 27.3% for intermediate risk alterations, and 0% for low risk alterations. The areas under the curve for ThyGenX/ThyraMIR and ThyroSeq testing were 0.65 and 0.85, respectively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, at our institution, both ThygenX/ThyraMIR and ThyroSeq can be used to effectively stratify cytology specimens based on the risk of malignancy and reduce the number of surgeries performed at our institution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the American Society of Cytopathology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Atypia
  • AUS
  • FLUS
  • Molecular
  • ThyGenX
  • Thyroid cytopathology
  • ThyroSeq

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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