Using ethanol/diesel mixtures in a compression ignition engine with ignition improver additives

Thomas G. Holland, Matthew N. Swain, Michael R. Swain

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

An experimental screening of non-nitrogen containing ignition improvers was conducted to investigate the possible use of diesel/alcohol fuel blends in an unmodified CI engine. The five non-nitrogen containing ignition improvers were: Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide; O,O-t-Amyl-O (2-Ethyl hexyl) monoperoxycarbonate; 1,1 Bis-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; Tertiary Butyl Hydroperoxide; and t-Amyl Perbenzoate. Alcohol content tested ranged from 10% to 100% by volume. For diesel/alcohol fuel blends containing more than 10% alcohol, BTEs similar to pure diesel could only be achieved with the addition of an ignition improver additive. Since diesel/alcohol blends separate with water addition, additives to improve water addition phase stability were also investigated. The blend employing the preferred ignition improver additive was found to have a greater ability to stay in solution than a control diesel blend without the additive. Higher order alcohols were used as additional surfactants in order to achieve phase stability comparable to commercial gasohol with water contamination. A final preferred Diesohol (i.e. diesel/alcohol) blend containing approximately 67.93% D-2 diesel fuel, 25% ethanol, 5% butanol, 2% ignition improver additive, and 0.07% Lubrizol additive was further tested including gaseous emissions. The blend showed a reduction in NOx, CO2 and soot emissions. HC emissions were increased. CO emissions were reduced at high load but increased at low load.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSAE Technical Papers
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 1992
EventInternational Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Oct 19 1992Oct 22 1992

Other

OtherInternational Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition
CountryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA
Period10/19/9210/22/92

Fingerprint

Ignition
Compaction
Ethanol
Engines
Alcohols
Diesel fuels
Alcohol fuels
Phase stability
Gasohol
Water
Soot
Peroxides
Butenes
Gas emissions
Screening
Surface active agents
Contamination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Pollution
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

Using ethanol/diesel mixtures in a compression ignition engine with ignition improver additives. / Holland, Thomas G.; Swain, Matthew N.; Swain, Michael R.

SAE Technical Papers. 1992.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Holland, TG, Swain, MN & Swain, MR 1992, Using ethanol/diesel mixtures in a compression ignition engine with ignition improver additives. in SAE Technical Papers. International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, San Francisco, CA, United States, 10/19/92. https://doi.org/10.4271/922191
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abstract = "An experimental screening of non-nitrogen containing ignition improvers was conducted to investigate the possible use of diesel/alcohol fuel blends in an unmodified CI engine. The five non-nitrogen containing ignition improvers were: Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide; O,O-t-Amyl-O (2-Ethyl hexyl) monoperoxycarbonate; 1,1 Bis-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; Tertiary Butyl Hydroperoxide; and t-Amyl Perbenzoate. Alcohol content tested ranged from 10{\%} to 100{\%} by volume. For diesel/alcohol fuel blends containing more than 10{\%} alcohol, BTEs similar to pure diesel could only be achieved with the addition of an ignition improver additive. Since diesel/alcohol blends separate with water addition, additives to improve water addition phase stability were also investigated. The blend employing the preferred ignition improver additive was found to have a greater ability to stay in solution than a control diesel blend without the additive. Higher order alcohols were used as additional surfactants in order to achieve phase stability comparable to commercial gasohol with water contamination. A final preferred Diesohol (i.e. diesel/alcohol) blend containing approximately 67.93{\%} D-2 diesel fuel, 25{\%} ethanol, 5{\%} butanol, 2{\%} ignition improver additive, and 0.07{\%} Lubrizol additive was further tested including gaseous emissions. The blend showed a reduction in NOx, CO2 and soot emissions. HC emissions were increased. CO emissions were reduced at high load but increased at low load.",
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