Using embedded simulated persons (aka "confederates")

Jill S Sanko, Ilya Shekhter, Richard R. Kyle, David Birnbach

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


From the perspective of a simulation program the effectiveness of a training program may be seen as the product of three components: the training platform, the skills of the educators, and the curricular integration (Issenberg, 2006). If any of these components is missing or deficient, the overall result will be diminished, and effective training may not occur. For example, it is not uncommon for an institution to purchase an expensive simulator only to see it sit unused because the faculty and staff are not adequately trained in the use of the equipment or the proper methods to integrate simulation into healthcare education. One group of simulation staff for which proper training is vital is that of embedded simulated persons (ESPs), also known as simulation confederates. Simulation programs that lack training and assessment of ESPs do their learners and their programs an injustice, robbing them of the full spectrum of engagement and learning that can take place in a well-rehearsed, well-rounded, and well-acted simulation experience. This chapter provides 10 recommendations aimed at improving the performance of all levels of ESPs from novice to experts, as well as enhancing the effectiveness of scenario coordinators who guide ESPs scenario production personnel who interact with ESPs and simulation center directors who employ ESPs. Using these recommendations will help to develop and improve clinical training programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDefining Excellence in Simulation Programs
PublisherWolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP)
ISBN (Electronic)9781469833385
ISBN (Print)9781451188790
StatePublished - Oct 7 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Using embedded simulated persons (aka "confederates")'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this