Use of marine protected areas and exclusive economic zones in the subtropical western North Atlantic Ocean by large highly mobile sharks

Fiona Graham, Patrick Rynne, Maria Estevanez, Jiangang Luo, Jerald S Ault, Neil Hammerschlag

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Study aim and location: Many populations of highly mobile marine fishes, including large sharks, are experiencing declines. The benefits of spatial management zones, such as marine protected areas (MPAs), for such animals are unclear. To help fill this knowledge gap, we examined core habitat use areas (CHUAs) for bull (Carcharhinus leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in relation to specific MPAs and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Methods: Bull, great hammerhead and tiger sharks (N = 86 total) were satellite tagged and tracked in southern Florida and the northern Bahamas between 2010 and 2013. Filtered and regularized positions from Argos locations of tag transmissions were used to generate CHUAs for these sharks. Overlaps of CHUAs with regional protected areas and exclusive economic management zones were quantified to determine the proportion of each tracked shark's CHUA under spatial protection from exploitation. Results: A total of 0%, 17.9% and 34.7% of the regional CHUAs for tracked bull, great hammerhead and tiger sharks, respectively, were fully protected from exploitation in the study area. Main conclusions: Expansion of protected areas to include U.S. territorial waters would effectively protect 100% of the CHUAs for all tracked sharks in the study area. This finding is particularly significant for great hammerhead sharks, which are currently overfished, vulnerable to bycatch mortality and are the focus of strident regional conservation efforts. These findings also provide a means to inform decision makers and marine conservation planning efforts as to the types of management actions available and potential efficacy of spatial protections for these marine predators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDiversity and Distributions
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2016

Fingerprint

Exclusive Economic Zone
shark
Galeocerdo cuvier
sharks
subtropics
Atlantic Ocean
protected area
conservation areas
Sphyrnidae
habitat use
economics
habitats
bulls
Leucas
Carcharhinus
Bahamas
bycatch
marine fish
Argo
North Atlantic Ocean

Keywords

  • Biotelemetry
  • Conservation
  • Fishes
  • Habitat use
  • Place-based management
  • Sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

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title = "Use of marine protected areas and exclusive economic zones in the subtropical western North Atlantic Ocean by large highly mobile sharks",
abstract = "Study aim and location: Many populations of highly mobile marine fishes, including large sharks, are experiencing declines. The benefits of spatial management zones, such as marine protected areas (MPAs), for such animals are unclear. To help fill this knowledge gap, we examined core habitat use areas (CHUAs) for bull (Carcharhinus leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in relation to specific MPAs and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Methods: Bull, great hammerhead and tiger sharks (N = 86 total) were satellite tagged and tracked in southern Florida and the northern Bahamas between 2010 and 2013. Filtered and regularized positions from Argos locations of tag transmissions were used to generate CHUAs for these sharks. Overlaps of CHUAs with regional protected areas and exclusive economic management zones were quantified to determine the proportion of each tracked shark's CHUA under spatial protection from exploitation. Results: A total of 0{\%}, 17.9{\%} and 34.7{\%} of the regional CHUAs for tracked bull, great hammerhead and tiger sharks, respectively, were fully protected from exploitation in the study area. Main conclusions: Expansion of protected areas to include U.S. territorial waters would effectively protect 100{\%} of the CHUAs for all tracked sharks in the study area. This finding is particularly significant for great hammerhead sharks, which are currently overfished, vulnerable to bycatch mortality and are the focus of strident regional conservation efforts. These findings also provide a means to inform decision makers and marine conservation planning efforts as to the types of management actions available and potential efficacy of spatial protections for these marine predators.",
keywords = "Biotelemetry, Conservation, Fishes, Habitat use, Place-based management, Sustainability",
author = "Fiona Graham and Patrick Rynne and Maria Estevanez and Jiangang Luo and Ault, {Jerald S} and Neil Hammerschlag",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1111/ddi.12425",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Diversity and Distributions",
issn = "1366-9516",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Use of marine protected areas and exclusive economic zones in the subtropical western North Atlantic Ocean by large highly mobile sharks

AU - Graham, Fiona

AU - Rynne, Patrick

AU - Estevanez, Maria

AU - Luo, Jiangang

AU - Ault, Jerald S

AU - Hammerschlag, Neil

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Study aim and location: Many populations of highly mobile marine fishes, including large sharks, are experiencing declines. The benefits of spatial management zones, such as marine protected areas (MPAs), for such animals are unclear. To help fill this knowledge gap, we examined core habitat use areas (CHUAs) for bull (Carcharhinus leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in relation to specific MPAs and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Methods: Bull, great hammerhead and tiger sharks (N = 86 total) were satellite tagged and tracked in southern Florida and the northern Bahamas between 2010 and 2013. Filtered and regularized positions from Argos locations of tag transmissions were used to generate CHUAs for these sharks. Overlaps of CHUAs with regional protected areas and exclusive economic management zones were quantified to determine the proportion of each tracked shark's CHUA under spatial protection from exploitation. Results: A total of 0%, 17.9% and 34.7% of the regional CHUAs for tracked bull, great hammerhead and tiger sharks, respectively, were fully protected from exploitation in the study area. Main conclusions: Expansion of protected areas to include U.S. territorial waters would effectively protect 100% of the CHUAs for all tracked sharks in the study area. This finding is particularly significant for great hammerhead sharks, which are currently overfished, vulnerable to bycatch mortality and are the focus of strident regional conservation efforts. These findings also provide a means to inform decision makers and marine conservation planning efforts as to the types of management actions available and potential efficacy of spatial protections for these marine predators.

AB - Study aim and location: Many populations of highly mobile marine fishes, including large sharks, are experiencing declines. The benefits of spatial management zones, such as marine protected areas (MPAs), for such animals are unclear. To help fill this knowledge gap, we examined core habitat use areas (CHUAs) for bull (Carcharhinus leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in relation to specific MPAs and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Methods: Bull, great hammerhead and tiger sharks (N = 86 total) were satellite tagged and tracked in southern Florida and the northern Bahamas between 2010 and 2013. Filtered and regularized positions from Argos locations of tag transmissions were used to generate CHUAs for these sharks. Overlaps of CHUAs with regional protected areas and exclusive economic management zones were quantified to determine the proportion of each tracked shark's CHUA under spatial protection from exploitation. Results: A total of 0%, 17.9% and 34.7% of the regional CHUAs for tracked bull, great hammerhead and tiger sharks, respectively, were fully protected from exploitation in the study area. Main conclusions: Expansion of protected areas to include U.S. territorial waters would effectively protect 100% of the CHUAs for all tracked sharks in the study area. This finding is particularly significant for great hammerhead sharks, which are currently overfished, vulnerable to bycatch mortality and are the focus of strident regional conservation efforts. These findings also provide a means to inform decision makers and marine conservation planning efforts as to the types of management actions available and potential efficacy of spatial protections for these marine predators.

KW - Biotelemetry

KW - Conservation

KW - Fishes

KW - Habitat use

KW - Place-based management

KW - Sustainability

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U2 - 10.1111/ddi.12425

DO - 10.1111/ddi.12425

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JO - Diversity and Distributions

JF - Diversity and Distributions

SN - 1366-9516

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