Use of ladle furnace slag and other industrial by-products to encapsulate chloride in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash

Ying Wang, Wen Ni, Prannoy Suraneni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


Municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) is a hazardous by-product of waste incineration. The objective of this research is to encapsulate the chloride in MSWIFA and to develop a utilizable construction material using MSWIFA, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), ladle furnace slag (LFS), and gypsum. A secondary objective of the work is to explain the hydration and encapsulation mechanisms in this material system using isothermal calorimetry (IC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ion chromatography (IC). The predominant hydration products are ettringite, Friedel's salt, and C-S-H gel, with Friedel's salt and C-S-H dominating in systems high in LFS and ettringite and C-S-H gel dominating in systems low in LFS. The chloride encapsulation showed a strong correlation with the Friedel's salt amount; however, some encapsulation was also likely due to physical binding in the C-S-H gel. In a system with 30% MSWIFA (by mass), the optimal amount of LFS for strength and chloride encapsulation is 20%-40% (by mass).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number925
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019



  • Chloride encapsulation
  • Friedel's salt
  • Ladle furnace slag

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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