US outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis

Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Shondra Neumeister

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

111 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Drinking water has been implicated as the mode of transmission in several outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis throughout the United States. This review of US outbreaks describes characteristics of the raw water supply, suspected sources of contamination, water treatment methods, and corrective actions. Of the total number of outbreaks, roughly half were associated with groundwater sources; the majority of affected individuals, however, were served by drinking water drawn from surface water. Wastewater was implicated as the source of contamination of raw or treated water for roughly half of the outbreaks. Nonpoint sources, such as agricultural runoff, were suspected sources of contamination in the remaining outbreaks. The majority of affected individuals were served by treatment plants using coagulant addition, filtration, and chlorine disinfection processes. Although treatment deficiencies and suboptimal operational practices were noted during some of the outbreaks, all treatment plants were complying with federal and local regulations. Existing regulations and water supply systems, especially those utilizing surface water sources, should be reevaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-86
Number of pages11
JournalJournal / American Water Works Association
Volume88
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 1996

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Contamination
Surface waters
Potable water
Drinking Water
Agricultural runoff
water supply
drinking water
surface water
Water supply systems
agricultural runoff
Coagulants
Disinfection
Chlorine
Water treatment
Water supply
disinfection
chlorine
Groundwater
water treatment
Wastewater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Civil and Structural Engineering

Cite this

US outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. / Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Neumeister, Shondra.

In: Journal / American Water Works Association, Vol. 88, No. 9, 01.09.1996, p. 76-86.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Solo-Gabriele, Helena M ; Neumeister, Shondra. / US outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. In: Journal / American Water Works Association. 1996 ; Vol. 88, No. 9. pp. 76-86.
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