Bladder cancer is amenable to biomarker development because many tumor-associated molecules are secreted in urine. Tumor cells are shed in urine, and, therefore, tests that detect tumor cell-surface markers have also been developed to diagnose bladder cancer and monitor its recurrence. Several bladder tumor markers show higher sensitivity than cytology, but most have lower specificity. In addition to markers that use conventional technologies such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, point-of-care devices, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry, proteomic and gene profiling approaches are being used to find new biomarkers to assist in the molecular profiling of bladder cancer. This review describes both new and well-studied bladder tumor markers.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations|
|State||Published - Nov 2006|
- Bladder cancer
- Tumor markers
ASJC Scopus subject areas