PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a current comprehensive review of the available urinary biomarkers for the detection and surveillance of bladder cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: The limitations of urine cytology and invasive nature of cystoscopic evaluation have led to a growing search for an ideal, cost-effective biomarker with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Current FDA approved biomarkers such as UroVysion fluorescent in situ hybridization, Immunocyt, and nuclear matrix protein 22 do not have the specificity, and thus positive predictive value to warrant their cost as a routine adjunct or replacement for cystoscopy. Several promising commercially available assays such as Cxbladder, Assure MDx, and Xpert BC may perform better than cytology in select populations. Novel genomic, epigenetic, inflammatory, and metabolomic-based assays are being analyzed as potential urinary biomarkers. SUMMARY: Urinary biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity are an unmet need in bladder cancer. Several new assays may meet these criteria and future research may justify use in clinical practice.
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