Upregulation of IL-21 receptor on B cells and IL-21 secretion distinguishes novel 2009 H1N1 vaccine responders from nonresponders among HIV-infected persons on combination antiretroviral therapy

Suresh Pallikkuth, Sudheesh Pilakka Kanthikeel, Sandra Y. Silva, Margaret A Fischl, Rajendra Pahwa, Savita G Pahwa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mechanisms underlying failure of novel 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine-induced Ab responses in HIV-infected persons are poorly understood. This study prospectively evaluated 16 HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy and eight healthy controls (HC) who received a single 15 mg dose of nonadjuvanted novel 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic. Peripheral blood was collected at baseline (T0) and at 7 d (T1) and 28 d (T2) postvaccination for evaluation of immune responses. Prevaccination hemagglutination inhibition Ab titer was <1:20 in all except one study participant. At T2, all HC and 8 out of 16 patients (50%) developed a vaccine-induced Ab titer of ≥1:40. Vaccine responder (R) and vaccine nonresponder patients were comparable at T0 in age, CD4 counts, virus load, and B cell immunophenotypic characteristics. At T2, HC and R patients developed an expansion of phenotypic and functional memory B cells and ex vivo H1N1-stimulated IgG Ab-secreting cells in an ELISPOT assay. The memory B cell response was preceded by a significant expansion of plasmablasts and spontaneous H1N1-specific Ab-secreting cells at T1. At T2, HC and R patients also exhibited significant increases in serum IL-21 levels and in the frequency and mean fluorescence intensity of IL-21R-expressing B cells, which correlated with serum H1N1 Ab titers. Vaccine nonresponder patients failed to develop the above-described vaccine-induced immunologic responses. The novel association of novel 2009 H1N1 vaccine-induced Ab responses with IL-21/IL-21R upregulation and with development of memory B cells and plasmablasts has implications for future research in vaccine design.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6173-6181
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume186
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2011

Fingerprint

Interleukin-21 Receptors
B-Lymphocytes
Up-Regulation
Vaccines
HIV
Influenza Vaccines
Therapeutics
Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
Hemagglutination
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
interleukin-21
Serum
Immunoglobulin G
Fluorescence
Viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

@article{21cf7e192b6c42dfa3789a447cb4c29c,
title = "Upregulation of IL-21 receptor on B cells and IL-21 secretion distinguishes novel 2009 H1N1 vaccine responders from nonresponders among HIV-infected persons on combination antiretroviral therapy",
abstract = "Mechanisms underlying failure of novel 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine-induced Ab responses in HIV-infected persons are poorly understood. This study prospectively evaluated 16 HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy and eight healthy controls (HC) who received a single 15 mg dose of nonadjuvanted novel 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic. Peripheral blood was collected at baseline (T0) and at 7 d (T1) and 28 d (T2) postvaccination for evaluation of immune responses. Prevaccination hemagglutination inhibition Ab titer was <1:20 in all except one study participant. At T2, all HC and 8 out of 16 patients (50{\%}) developed a vaccine-induced Ab titer of ≥1:40. Vaccine responder (R) and vaccine nonresponder patients were comparable at T0 in age, CD4 counts, virus load, and B cell immunophenotypic characteristics. At T2, HC and R patients developed an expansion of phenotypic and functional memory B cells and ex vivo H1N1-stimulated IgG Ab-secreting cells in an ELISPOT assay. The memory B cell response was preceded by a significant expansion of plasmablasts and spontaneous H1N1-specific Ab-secreting cells at T1. At T2, HC and R patients also exhibited significant increases in serum IL-21 levels and in the frequency and mean fluorescence intensity of IL-21R-expressing B cells, which correlated with serum H1N1 Ab titers. Vaccine nonresponder patients failed to develop the above-described vaccine-induced immunologic responses. The novel association of novel 2009 H1N1 vaccine-induced Ab responses with IL-21/IL-21R upregulation and with development of memory B cells and plasmablasts has implications for future research in vaccine design.",
author = "Suresh Pallikkuth and Kanthikeel, {Sudheesh Pilakka} and Silva, {Sandra Y.} and Fischl, {Margaret A} and Rajendra Pahwa and Pahwa, {Savita G}",
year = "2011",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.4049/jimmunol.1100264",
language = "English",
volume = "186",
pages = "6173--6181",
journal = "Journal of Immunology",
issn = "0022-1767",
publisher = "American Association of Immunologists",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Upregulation of IL-21 receptor on B cells and IL-21 secretion distinguishes novel 2009 H1N1 vaccine responders from nonresponders among HIV-infected persons on combination antiretroviral therapy

AU - Pallikkuth, Suresh

AU - Kanthikeel, Sudheesh Pilakka

AU - Silva, Sandra Y.

AU - Fischl, Margaret A

AU - Pahwa, Rajendra

AU - Pahwa, Savita G

PY - 2011/6/1

Y1 - 2011/6/1

N2 - Mechanisms underlying failure of novel 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine-induced Ab responses in HIV-infected persons are poorly understood. This study prospectively evaluated 16 HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy and eight healthy controls (HC) who received a single 15 mg dose of nonadjuvanted novel 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic. Peripheral blood was collected at baseline (T0) and at 7 d (T1) and 28 d (T2) postvaccination for evaluation of immune responses. Prevaccination hemagglutination inhibition Ab titer was <1:20 in all except one study participant. At T2, all HC and 8 out of 16 patients (50%) developed a vaccine-induced Ab titer of ≥1:40. Vaccine responder (R) and vaccine nonresponder patients were comparable at T0 in age, CD4 counts, virus load, and B cell immunophenotypic characteristics. At T2, HC and R patients developed an expansion of phenotypic and functional memory B cells and ex vivo H1N1-stimulated IgG Ab-secreting cells in an ELISPOT assay. The memory B cell response was preceded by a significant expansion of plasmablasts and spontaneous H1N1-specific Ab-secreting cells at T1. At T2, HC and R patients also exhibited significant increases in serum IL-21 levels and in the frequency and mean fluorescence intensity of IL-21R-expressing B cells, which correlated with serum H1N1 Ab titers. Vaccine nonresponder patients failed to develop the above-described vaccine-induced immunologic responses. The novel association of novel 2009 H1N1 vaccine-induced Ab responses with IL-21/IL-21R upregulation and with development of memory B cells and plasmablasts has implications for future research in vaccine design.

AB - Mechanisms underlying failure of novel 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine-induced Ab responses in HIV-infected persons are poorly understood. This study prospectively evaluated 16 HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy and eight healthy controls (HC) who received a single 15 mg dose of nonadjuvanted novel 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic. Peripheral blood was collected at baseline (T0) and at 7 d (T1) and 28 d (T2) postvaccination for evaluation of immune responses. Prevaccination hemagglutination inhibition Ab titer was <1:20 in all except one study participant. At T2, all HC and 8 out of 16 patients (50%) developed a vaccine-induced Ab titer of ≥1:40. Vaccine responder (R) and vaccine nonresponder patients were comparable at T0 in age, CD4 counts, virus load, and B cell immunophenotypic characteristics. At T2, HC and R patients developed an expansion of phenotypic and functional memory B cells and ex vivo H1N1-stimulated IgG Ab-secreting cells in an ELISPOT assay. The memory B cell response was preceded by a significant expansion of plasmablasts and spontaneous H1N1-specific Ab-secreting cells at T1. At T2, HC and R patients also exhibited significant increases in serum IL-21 levels and in the frequency and mean fluorescence intensity of IL-21R-expressing B cells, which correlated with serum H1N1 Ab titers. Vaccine nonresponder patients failed to develop the above-described vaccine-induced immunologic responses. The novel association of novel 2009 H1N1 vaccine-induced Ab responses with IL-21/IL-21R upregulation and with development of memory B cells and plasmablasts has implications for future research in vaccine design.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79958074866&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79958074866&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.4049/jimmunol.1100264

DO - 10.4049/jimmunol.1100264

M3 - Article

VL - 186

SP - 6173

EP - 6181

JO - Journal of Immunology

JF - Journal of Immunology

SN - 0022-1767

IS - 11

ER -