PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The surgical management of short bowel syndrome now includes intestinal (ITx) and multivisceral transplantation (MVTx), which has advanced and is now a sustainable option for the treatment of intestinal failure. Improvements in immunosuppressive therapies, excellence in surgical and medical management and enhanced post-transplant monitoring have all contributed to optimizing this solid organ transplant as a means of supplanting the diseased native bowel and alimentary tract with a functional alternative. RECENT FINDINGS: Post-transplant management is a critical and challenging phase of gastrointestinal transplantation, and the transplant pathologist is an essential member of the transplant team who identifies many of the early and late complications after ITx and MVTx. Among the most injurious and common complications of ITx and MVTx is acute rejection and, to a lesser degree, chronic rejection. Both of these broad categories of rejection are principally identified by histopathological changes in the allograft; however, biomarkers and other laboratory analytes are rapidly evolving into critical ancillary tools in identifying and further characterizing the rejection process. Thus, the transplant pathologist must also be able to utilize numerous other laboratory tests and panels of molecular biomarkers that provide supplementary information to accompany the biopsy interpretation and clinical suspicion of rejection. SUMMARY: Using biopsies and an assortment of additional approaches, the transplant pathologist is now able to provide swift and detailed information regarding the rejection process in the gastrointestinal transplant. This enables the clinical team to properly and successfully intercede, contributing to enhanced patient and graft survival.
- intestinal transplantation
- multivisceral transplantation
- transplant pathology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy