Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common retinal vascular disease classified according to the anatomical location of the occlusion in central (CRVO) or branch (BRVO) retinal vein occlusion. RVO is an important cause of visual loss worldwide and frequently results in visual impairment and ocular complications. Major causes of vision loss in BRVO and CRVO include macular edema (ME), capillary nonperfusion, and neovascularization, causing glaucoma, vitreous hemorrhage, and/or tractional retinal detachment (The Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group in Am J Ophthalmol 98:271–82, 1984). Macular edema is the leading cause of decreased central visual acuity in RVO (Gass in Stereoscopic atlas of macular diseases: diagnosis and treatment, 1997). Recently, there was a paradigm shift in the treatment of ME due to RVO with the advent of new pharmacotherapy treatment strategies and combination therapies. This paper reviews the current thinking and discusses the evidence behind the emerging treatment options for ME following RVO, including laser photocoagulation, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intravitreal corticosteroid-based pharmacotherapies, and surgical management.
- Intravitreal injections
- Macular edema
- Retinal vein occlusion
- Vascular endothelial growth factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas