Background - Bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) has decreased in popularity over the past decade because of its complexity and the risk of cerebral embolism. We used magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging to assess flow distribution in both hemispheres of the brain during unilateral ACP through the right carotid artery via a cannula placed in the right axillary artery in conjunction with hypothermic circulatory arrest. Methods and Results - Twelve pigs were randomly exposed to 120 minutes of either bilateral ACP through both carotid arteries (n=6) or unilateral ACP through the right axillary artery (n=6) at pressures of 60 to 65 mm Hg at 15°C, followed by 60 minutes of cardiopulmonary bypass at 37°C. MR perfusion images were acquired every 30 minutes before, during, and after ACP. The brain was perfusion fixed for histopathology. During initial normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, MR perfusion imaging showed a uniform distribution of flow in the brain. In both the bilateral and unilateral ACP groups, the same pattern was maintained, with an increase in regional cerebral blood volume during ACP and reperfusion. The changes in regional cerebral blood volume and mean transit time were similar in both hemispheres during and after unilateral ACP. No difference was observed between the 2 groups. Histopathology showed normal morphology in all regions of the brain in both groups. Conclusions - Both bilateral ACP and unilateral ACP provide uniform blood distribution to both hemispheres of the brain and preserve normal morphology of the neurons after prolonged hypothermic circulatory arrest.
- Cerebrovascular circulation
- Magnetic resonance imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine