Unexpected primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of bone in amputation and arthroplasty specimens

Julio A. Diaz-Perez, Julio C. Poveda, Jennifer R. Chapman, Jaylou M. Velez-Torres, Francisco Vega, Andrew E. Rosenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objectives: Amputation due to gangrene and arthroplasty for degenerative joint disease are common orthopedic procedures and are expected to increase as populations age. Histopathologic examination of these specimens can identify unsuspected diseases. Methods: We reviewed gangrenous amputations and large joint arthroplasty specimens for diagnosis of unexpected lymphoma, January 2014 to January 2020. Pathology and medical records were reviewed to determine diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Results: Five cases (0.08%) of unexpected primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) centered in bone were identified in 1,624 amputations for gangrene and 4,163 arthroplasty specimens. The female-to-male distribution was 3:2. Median age was 71 years (range, 62-87). The 3 cases arising in the setting of gangrene involved the first toe phalanges and metatarsals, and the femoral head was involved in all cases of joint disease (2 cases). The bone showed variable (10%-80%) infiltration by dense populations of small lymphoid cells with MZL immunophenotype. One patient died from sepsis 18.5 months after diagnosis; all others are alive with a median follow-up of 27.45 months. Conclusions: Histopathologic examination of nonneoplastic orthopedic specimens identifies unexpected primary bone extranodal MZL in a small percentage of cases. This neoplasm may be the result of chronic antigenic stimulation in some circumstances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1038-1043
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of clinical pathology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Amputation
  • Arthroplasty
  • Bone neoplasms
  • Incidental findings
  • Marginal zone lymphoma
  • Osteoarthrosis
  • Osteomyelitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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