Ultraluminous X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field

V. Mainieri, C. Vignali, A. Merloni, F. Civano, S. Puccetti, M. Brusa, R. Gilli, M. Bolzonella, A. Comastri, G. Zamorani, M. Aller, M. Carollo, C. Scarlata, M. Elvis, T. L. Aldcroft, Nico Cappelluti, G. Fabbiano, A. Finoguenov, F. Fiore, A. Fruscione & 42 others A. M. Koekemoer, T. Contini, J. P. Kneib, O. Le Fèvre, S. Lilly, A. Renzini, M. Scodeggio, S. Bardelli, A. Bongiorno, K. Caputi, G. Coppa, O. Cucciati, S. De La Torre, L. De Ravel, P. Franzetti, B. Garilli, A. Iovino, P. Kampczyk, C. Knobel, K. Kovač, F. Lamareille, J. F. Le Borgne, V. Le Brun, C. Maier, M. Mignoli, R. Pello, Y. Peng, E. Perez Montero, E. Ricciardelli, J. D. Silverman, M. Tanaka, L. Tasca, L. Tresse, D. Vergani, E. Zucca, P. Capak, O. Ilbert, C. Impey, M. Salvato, N. Scoville, Y. Taniguchi, J. Trump

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context. Using Chandra observations we identified a sample of seven off-nuclear X-ray sources in the redshift range z = 0.072-0.283, located within optically bright galaxies in the COSMOS Survey. All of them, if associated with their closest bright galaxy, would have L[0.5-7 keV] > 1039 erg s-1 and therefore can be classified as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Aims. Using the multi-wavelength coverage available in the COSMOS field, we studied the properties of the host galaxies of these ULXs. In detail, we derived their star formation rate from Hα measurements and their stellar masses using SED fitting techniques with the aim to compute the probability to have an off-nuclear source based on the host galaxy properties. We divided the host galaxies in different morphological classes with the available ACS/HST imaging. Methods. We selected off-nuclear candidates with the following criteria: 1) the distance between the X-ray and the optical centroid has to be larger than 0.9, larger than 1.8 times the radius of the Chandra positional error circle and smaller than the Petrosian radius of the host galaxy; 2) the optical counterpart is a bright galaxy (RAB<22); 3) the redshift of the counterpart is lower than z = 0.3; 4) the source has been observed in at least one Chandra pointing at an off-axis angle smaller than 5; 5) the X-ray positional error is smaller than 0.8. We verified each candidate super-imposing the X-ray contours on the optical/IR images. We expect less than one misidentified AGN due to astrometric errors and on average 1.3 serendipitous background source matches. Results. We find that our ULXs candidates are located in regions of the SFR versus M* plane where one or more off-nuclear detectable sources are expected. From a morphological analysis of the ACS imaging and the use of rest-frame colours, we find that our ULXs are hosted both in late and early type galaxies. Finally, we find that the fraction of galaxies hosting a ULX ranges from ≈ 0.5% to ≈ 0.2% going from L 0.5-2keV = 3 × 1039 erg s-1 to L 0.5-2KeV = 2 × 1040 erg s-1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA85
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume514
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - May 20 2010
Externally publishedYes

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galaxies
x rays
erg
COSMOS
radii
star formation rate
stellar mass
centroids
wavelength
color
wavelengths

Keywords

  • Surveys
  • X-rays: binaries
  • X-rays: galaxies
  • X-rays: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Mainieri, V., Vignali, C., Merloni, A., Civano, F., Puccetti, S., Brusa, M., ... Trump, J. (2010). Ultraluminous X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 514(12), [A85]. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200912544

Ultraluminous X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field. / Mainieri, V.; Vignali, C.; Merloni, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Gilli, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Aller, M.; Carollo, M.; Scarlata, C.; Elvis, M.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Cappelluti, Nico; Fabbiano, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; De La Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Impey, C.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Trump, J.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 514, No. 12, A85, 20.05.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mainieri, V, Vignali, C, Merloni, A, Civano, F, Puccetti, S, Brusa, M, Gilli, R, Bolzonella, M, Comastri, A, Zamorani, G, Aller, M, Carollo, M, Scarlata, C, Elvis, M, Aldcroft, TL, Cappelluti, N, Fabbiano, G, Finoguenov, A, Fiore, F, Fruscione, A, Koekemoer, AM, Contini, T, Kneib, JP, Le Fèvre, O, Lilly, S, Renzini, A, Scodeggio, M, Bardelli, S, Bongiorno, A, Caputi, K, Coppa, G, Cucciati, O, De La Torre, S, De Ravel, L, Franzetti, P, Garilli, B, Iovino, A, Kampczyk, P, Knobel, C, Kovač, K, Lamareille, F, Le Borgne, JF, Le Brun, V, Maier, C, Mignoli, M, Pello, R, Peng, Y, Perez Montero, E, Ricciardelli, E, Silverman, JD, Tanaka, M, Tasca, L, Tresse, L, Vergani, D, Zucca, E, Capak, P, Ilbert, O, Impey, C, Salvato, M, Scoville, N, Taniguchi, Y & Trump, J 2010, 'Ultraluminous X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 514, no. 12, A85. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200912544
Mainieri V, Vignali C, Merloni A, Civano F, Puccetti S, Brusa M et al. Ultraluminous X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2010 May 20;514(12). A85. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200912544
Mainieri, V. ; Vignali, C. ; Merloni, A. ; Civano, F. ; Puccetti, S. ; Brusa, M. ; Gilli, R. ; Bolzonella, M. ; Comastri, A. ; Zamorani, G. ; Aller, M. ; Carollo, M. ; Scarlata, C. ; Elvis, M. ; Aldcroft, T. L. ; Cappelluti, Nico ; Fabbiano, G. ; Finoguenov, A. ; Fiore, F. ; Fruscione, A. ; Koekemoer, A. M. ; Contini, T. ; Kneib, J. P. ; Le Fèvre, O. ; Lilly, S. ; Renzini, A. ; Scodeggio, M. ; Bardelli, S. ; Bongiorno, A. ; Caputi, K. ; Coppa, G. ; Cucciati, O. ; De La Torre, S. ; De Ravel, L. ; Franzetti, P. ; Garilli, B. ; Iovino, A. ; Kampczyk, P. ; Knobel, C. ; Kovač, K. ; Lamareille, F. ; Le Borgne, J. F. ; Le Brun, V. ; Maier, C. ; Mignoli, M. ; Pello, R. ; Peng, Y. ; Perez Montero, E. ; Ricciardelli, E. ; Silverman, J. D. ; Tanaka, M. ; Tasca, L. ; Tresse, L. ; Vergani, D. ; Zucca, E. ; Capak, P. ; Ilbert, O. ; Impey, C. ; Salvato, M. ; Scoville, N. ; Taniguchi, Y. ; Trump, J. / Ultraluminous X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2010 ; Vol. 514, No. 12.
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title = "Ultraluminous X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field",
abstract = "Context. Using Chandra observations we identified a sample of seven off-nuclear X-ray sources in the redshift range z = 0.072-0.283, located within optically bright galaxies in the COSMOS Survey. All of them, if associated with their closest bright galaxy, would have L[0.5-7 keV] > 1039 erg s-1 and therefore can be classified as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Aims. Using the multi-wavelength coverage available in the COSMOS field, we studied the properties of the host galaxies of these ULXs. In detail, we derived their star formation rate from Hα measurements and their stellar masses using SED fitting techniques with the aim to compute the probability to have an off-nuclear source based on the host galaxy properties. We divided the host galaxies in different morphological classes with the available ACS/HST imaging. Methods. We selected off-nuclear candidates with the following criteria: 1) the distance between the X-ray and the optical centroid has to be larger than 0.9, larger than 1.8 times the radius of the Chandra positional error circle and smaller than the Petrosian radius of the host galaxy; 2) the optical counterpart is a bright galaxy (RAB<22); 3) the redshift of the counterpart is lower than z = 0.3; 4) the source has been observed in at least one Chandra pointing at an off-axis angle smaller than 5; 5) the X-ray positional error is smaller than 0.8. We verified each candidate super-imposing the X-ray contours on the optical/IR images. We expect less than one misidentified AGN due to astrometric errors and on average 1.3 serendipitous background source matches. Results. We find that our ULXs candidates are located in regions of the SFR versus M* plane where one or more off-nuclear detectable sources are expected. From a morphological analysis of the ACS imaging and the use of rest-frame colours, we find that our ULXs are hosted both in late and early type galaxies. Finally, we find that the fraction of galaxies hosting a ULX ranges from ≈ 0.5{\%} to ≈ 0.2{\%} going from L 0.5-2keV = 3 × 1039 erg s-1 to L 0.5-2KeV = 2 × 1040 erg s-1.",
keywords = "Surveys, X-rays: binaries, X-rays: galaxies, X-rays: general",
author = "V. Mainieri and C. Vignali and A. Merloni and F. Civano and S. Puccetti and M. Brusa and R. Gilli and M. Bolzonella and A. Comastri and G. Zamorani and M. Aller and M. Carollo and C. Scarlata and M. Elvis and Aldcroft, {T. L.} and Nico Cappelluti and G. Fabbiano and A. Finoguenov and F. Fiore and A. Fruscione and Koekemoer, {A. M.} and T. Contini and Kneib, {J. P.} and {Le F{\`e}vre}, O. and S. Lilly and A. Renzini and M. Scodeggio and S. Bardelli and A. Bongiorno and K. Caputi and G. Coppa and O. Cucciati and {De La Torre}, S. and {De Ravel}, L. and P. Franzetti and B. Garilli and A. Iovino and P. Kampczyk and C. Knobel and K. Kovač and F. Lamareille and {Le Borgne}, {J. F.} and {Le Brun}, V. and C. Maier and M. Mignoli and R. Pello and Y. Peng and {Perez Montero}, E. and E. Ricciardelli and Silverman, {J. D.} and M. Tanaka and L. Tasca and L. Tresse and D. Vergani and E. Zucca and P. Capak and O. Ilbert and C. Impey and M. Salvato and N. Scoville and Y. Taniguchi and J. Trump",
year = "2010",
month = "5",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/200912544",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "514",
journal = "Astronomy and Astrophysics",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Ultraluminous X-ray sources out to z ∼ 0.3 in the COSMOS field

AU - Mainieri, V.

AU - Vignali, C.

AU - Merloni, A.

AU - Civano, F.

AU - Puccetti, S.

AU - Brusa, M.

AU - Gilli, R.

AU - Bolzonella, M.

AU - Comastri, A.

AU - Zamorani, G.

AU - Aller, M.

AU - Carollo, M.

AU - Scarlata, C.

AU - Elvis, M.

AU - Aldcroft, T. L.

AU - Cappelluti, Nico

AU - Fabbiano, G.

AU - Finoguenov, A.

AU - Fiore, F.

AU - Fruscione, A.

AU - Koekemoer, A. M.

AU - Contini, T.

AU - Kneib, J. P.

AU - Le Fèvre, O.

AU - Lilly, S.

AU - Renzini, A.

AU - Scodeggio, M.

AU - Bardelli, S.

AU - Bongiorno, A.

AU - Caputi, K.

AU - Coppa, G.

AU - Cucciati, O.

AU - De La Torre, S.

AU - De Ravel, L.

AU - Franzetti, P.

AU - Garilli, B.

AU - Iovino, A.

AU - Kampczyk, P.

AU - Knobel, C.

AU - Kovač, K.

AU - Lamareille, F.

AU - Le Borgne, J. F.

AU - Le Brun, V.

AU - Maier, C.

AU - Mignoli, M.

AU - Pello, R.

AU - Peng, Y.

AU - Perez Montero, E.

AU - Ricciardelli, E.

AU - Silverman, J. D.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Tasca, L.

AU - Tresse, L.

AU - Vergani, D.

AU - Zucca, E.

AU - Capak, P.

AU - Ilbert, O.

AU - Impey, C.

AU - Salvato, M.

AU - Scoville, N.

AU - Taniguchi, Y.

AU - Trump, J.

PY - 2010/5/20

Y1 - 2010/5/20

N2 - Context. Using Chandra observations we identified a sample of seven off-nuclear X-ray sources in the redshift range z = 0.072-0.283, located within optically bright galaxies in the COSMOS Survey. All of them, if associated with their closest bright galaxy, would have L[0.5-7 keV] > 1039 erg s-1 and therefore can be classified as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Aims. Using the multi-wavelength coverage available in the COSMOS field, we studied the properties of the host galaxies of these ULXs. In detail, we derived their star formation rate from Hα measurements and their stellar masses using SED fitting techniques with the aim to compute the probability to have an off-nuclear source based on the host galaxy properties. We divided the host galaxies in different morphological classes with the available ACS/HST imaging. Methods. We selected off-nuclear candidates with the following criteria: 1) the distance between the X-ray and the optical centroid has to be larger than 0.9, larger than 1.8 times the radius of the Chandra positional error circle and smaller than the Petrosian radius of the host galaxy; 2) the optical counterpart is a bright galaxy (RAB<22); 3) the redshift of the counterpart is lower than z = 0.3; 4) the source has been observed in at least one Chandra pointing at an off-axis angle smaller than 5; 5) the X-ray positional error is smaller than 0.8. We verified each candidate super-imposing the X-ray contours on the optical/IR images. We expect less than one misidentified AGN due to astrometric errors and on average 1.3 serendipitous background source matches. Results. We find that our ULXs candidates are located in regions of the SFR versus M* plane where one or more off-nuclear detectable sources are expected. From a morphological analysis of the ACS imaging and the use of rest-frame colours, we find that our ULXs are hosted both in late and early type galaxies. Finally, we find that the fraction of galaxies hosting a ULX ranges from ≈ 0.5% to ≈ 0.2% going from L 0.5-2keV = 3 × 1039 erg s-1 to L 0.5-2KeV = 2 × 1040 erg s-1.

AB - Context. Using Chandra observations we identified a sample of seven off-nuclear X-ray sources in the redshift range z = 0.072-0.283, located within optically bright galaxies in the COSMOS Survey. All of them, if associated with their closest bright galaxy, would have L[0.5-7 keV] > 1039 erg s-1 and therefore can be classified as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Aims. Using the multi-wavelength coverage available in the COSMOS field, we studied the properties of the host galaxies of these ULXs. In detail, we derived their star formation rate from Hα measurements and their stellar masses using SED fitting techniques with the aim to compute the probability to have an off-nuclear source based on the host galaxy properties. We divided the host galaxies in different morphological classes with the available ACS/HST imaging. Methods. We selected off-nuclear candidates with the following criteria: 1) the distance between the X-ray and the optical centroid has to be larger than 0.9, larger than 1.8 times the radius of the Chandra positional error circle and smaller than the Petrosian radius of the host galaxy; 2) the optical counterpart is a bright galaxy (RAB<22); 3) the redshift of the counterpart is lower than z = 0.3; 4) the source has been observed in at least one Chandra pointing at an off-axis angle smaller than 5; 5) the X-ray positional error is smaller than 0.8. We verified each candidate super-imposing the X-ray contours on the optical/IR images. We expect less than one misidentified AGN due to astrometric errors and on average 1.3 serendipitous background source matches. Results. We find that our ULXs candidates are located in regions of the SFR versus M* plane where one or more off-nuclear detectable sources are expected. From a morphological analysis of the ACS imaging and the use of rest-frame colours, we find that our ULXs are hosted both in late and early type galaxies. Finally, we find that the fraction of galaxies hosting a ULX ranges from ≈ 0.5% to ≈ 0.2% going from L 0.5-2keV = 3 × 1039 erg s-1 to L 0.5-2KeV = 2 × 1040 erg s-1.

KW - Surveys

KW - X-rays: binaries

KW - X-rays: galaxies

KW - X-rays: general

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JO - Astronomy and Astrophysics

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