Purpose To investigate ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) angiography for visualizing vascular changes in eyes with nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with geographic atrophy (GA). Design Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 63 eyes from 32 normal subjects and 12 eyes from 7 patients with nonexudative AMD with GA. Methods A 1050-nm, 400-kHz A-scan rate SSOCT system was used to perform volumetric optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of the retinal and choriocapillaris (CC) vasculatures in normal subjects and patients with nonexudative AMD with GA. Optical coherence tomography angiography using variable interscan time analysis (VISTA) was performed to assess CC alteration and differentiate varying degrees of CC flow impairment. Main Outcome Measures Qualitative comparison of retinal and CC vasculatures in normal subjects versus those in patients with a clinical diagnosis of nonexudative AMD with GA. Results In all 12 eyes with GA, OCTA showed pronounced CC flow impairment within the region of GA. In 10 of the 12 eyes with GA, OCTA with VISTA showed milder CC flow impairment extending beyond the margin of GA. Of the 5 eyes exhibiting foveal-sparing GA, OCTA showed CC flow within the region of foveal sparing in 4 of the eyes. Conclusions The ability of ultrahigh-speed, swept-source OCTA to noninvasively visualize alterations in the retinal and CC vasculatures makes it a promising tool for assessing nonexudative AMD with GA. Optical coherence tomography angiography using VISTA can distinguish varying degrees of CC alteration and flow impairment and may be useful for elucidating disease pathogenesis, progression, and response to therapy.
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