Two subsets of HLA-DQA1 Alleles Mark phenotypic variation in levels of insulin autoantibodies in first degree relatives at risk for insulin-dependent diabetes

Alberto Pugliese, Teodorica Bugawan, Rocio Moromisato, Zuheir L. Awdeh, Chester A. Alper, Richard A. Jackson, Henry A. Erlich, George S. Eisenbarth

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Abstract

Levels of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) vary among different first degree relatives of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, suggesting genetic regulation. We previously reported elevated IAA among DR4-positive at risk relatives. In this study, 72/82 at risk relatives were IAA positive, of whom 75% (54/72) carried DR4 versus 20% (2/10) of IAA-negative relatives (P = 0.0004). However, 69% (18/26) of DR4-negative relatives were IAA positive. Since DR4 did not account for all IAA positivity, we analyzed DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. Homozygosity for DQA1 alleles deriving from the evolutionary lineage 4 (*0401, *0501, *0601) was associated with low IAA levels, while lineage 1-3 alleles (*0101, *0102, *0103, *0201, *0301) correlated with higher levels. Most (93%, 65/70) relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles were IAA positive (mean = 360±63 SEM nU/ml). Only 7/12 relatives homozygous for lineage 4 alleles were IAA-positive, with lower levels than relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles (mean = 55±15 SEM nU/ml, P < 0.0001; 7/12 vs 65/70, P = 0.004). The amino acid sequences of lineage 1-3 alleles uniquely share glutamic acid (E) and phenylalanine (F) at positions 40 and 51 (EF alleles). Lineage 4 alleles have glycine (G) and leucine (L) at those positions (GL alleles). 90% (65/72) of IAA-positive relatives had an EF allele, while only 75% (54/72) had DR4 (P = 0.01). Homozygosity for GL alleles (often DQA1 *0501 on DR3 haplotypes) correlated with little or no humoral response to insulin. Thus, HLA-DQB1 GL alleles, or other genes on haplotypes (e.g., DR3) that carry these DQA1 alleles, may confer recessive low responsiveness to insulin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2447-2452
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Volume93
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 1994
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Autoantibodies
Alleles
Insulin
HLA-DQA1 antigen
Haplotypes
Phenylalanine
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Leucine
Glycine
Glutamic Acid
Amino Acid Sequence

Keywords

  • Autoimmunity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • HLA class II antigens
  • HLA-DQA1 antigens
  • Insulin autoantibodies
  • Insulin-dependent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Two subsets of HLA-DQA1 Alleles Mark phenotypic variation in levels of insulin autoantibodies in first degree relatives at risk for insulin-dependent diabetes. / Pugliese, Alberto; Bugawan, Teodorica; Moromisato, Rocio; Awdeh, Zuheir L.; Alper, Chester A.; Jackson, Richard A.; Erlich, Henry A.; Eisenbarth, George S.

In: Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 93, No. 6, 01.06.1994, p. 2447-2452.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pugliese, Alberto ; Bugawan, Teodorica ; Moromisato, Rocio ; Awdeh, Zuheir L. ; Alper, Chester A. ; Jackson, Richard A. ; Erlich, Henry A. ; Eisenbarth, George S. / Two subsets of HLA-DQA1 Alleles Mark phenotypic variation in levels of insulin autoantibodies in first degree relatives at risk for insulin-dependent diabetes. In: Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1994 ; Vol. 93, No. 6. pp. 2447-2452.
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abstract = "Levels of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) vary among different first degree relatives of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, suggesting genetic regulation. We previously reported elevated IAA among DR4-positive at risk relatives. In this study, 72/82 at risk relatives were IAA positive, of whom 75{\%} (54/72) carried DR4 versus 20{\%} (2/10) of IAA-negative relatives (P = 0.0004). However, 69{\%} (18/26) of DR4-negative relatives were IAA positive. Since DR4 did not account for all IAA positivity, we analyzed DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. Homozygosity for DQA1 alleles deriving from the evolutionary lineage 4 (*0401, *0501, *0601) was associated with low IAA levels, while lineage 1-3 alleles (*0101, *0102, *0103, *0201, *0301) correlated with higher levels. Most (93{\%}, 65/70) relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles were IAA positive (mean = 360±63 SEM nU/ml). Only 7/12 relatives homozygous for lineage 4 alleles were IAA-positive, with lower levels than relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles (mean = 55±15 SEM nU/ml, P < 0.0001; 7/12 vs 65/70, P = 0.004). The amino acid sequences of lineage 1-3 alleles uniquely share glutamic acid (E) and phenylalanine (F) at positions 40 and 51 (EF alleles). Lineage 4 alleles have glycine (G) and leucine (L) at those positions (GL alleles). 90{\%} (65/72) of IAA-positive relatives had an EF allele, while only 75{\%} (54/72) had DR4 (P = 0.01). Homozygosity for GL alleles (often DQA1 *0501 on DR3 haplotypes) correlated with little or no humoral response to insulin. Thus, HLA-DQB1 GL alleles, or other genes on haplotypes (e.g., DR3) that carry these DQA1 alleles, may confer recessive low responsiveness to insulin.",
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AU - Pugliese, Alberto

AU - Bugawan, Teodorica

AU - Moromisato, Rocio

AU - Awdeh, Zuheir L.

AU - Alper, Chester A.

AU - Jackson, Richard A.

AU - Erlich, Henry A.

AU - Eisenbarth, George S.

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N2 - Levels of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) vary among different first degree relatives of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, suggesting genetic regulation. We previously reported elevated IAA among DR4-positive at risk relatives. In this study, 72/82 at risk relatives were IAA positive, of whom 75% (54/72) carried DR4 versus 20% (2/10) of IAA-negative relatives (P = 0.0004). However, 69% (18/26) of DR4-negative relatives were IAA positive. Since DR4 did not account for all IAA positivity, we analyzed DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. Homozygosity for DQA1 alleles deriving from the evolutionary lineage 4 (*0401, *0501, *0601) was associated with low IAA levels, while lineage 1-3 alleles (*0101, *0102, *0103, *0201, *0301) correlated with higher levels. Most (93%, 65/70) relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles were IAA positive (mean = 360±63 SEM nU/ml). Only 7/12 relatives homozygous for lineage 4 alleles were IAA-positive, with lower levels than relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles (mean = 55±15 SEM nU/ml, P < 0.0001; 7/12 vs 65/70, P = 0.004). The amino acid sequences of lineage 1-3 alleles uniquely share glutamic acid (E) and phenylalanine (F) at positions 40 and 51 (EF alleles). Lineage 4 alleles have glycine (G) and leucine (L) at those positions (GL alleles). 90% (65/72) of IAA-positive relatives had an EF allele, while only 75% (54/72) had DR4 (P = 0.01). Homozygosity for GL alleles (often DQA1 *0501 on DR3 haplotypes) correlated with little or no humoral response to insulin. Thus, HLA-DQB1 GL alleles, or other genes on haplotypes (e.g., DR3) that carry these DQA1 alleles, may confer recessive low responsiveness to insulin.

AB - Levels of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) vary among different first degree relatives of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, suggesting genetic regulation. We previously reported elevated IAA among DR4-positive at risk relatives. In this study, 72/82 at risk relatives were IAA positive, of whom 75% (54/72) carried DR4 versus 20% (2/10) of IAA-negative relatives (P = 0.0004). However, 69% (18/26) of DR4-negative relatives were IAA positive. Since DR4 did not account for all IAA positivity, we analyzed DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. Homozygosity for DQA1 alleles deriving from the evolutionary lineage 4 (*0401, *0501, *0601) was associated with low IAA levels, while lineage 1-3 alleles (*0101, *0102, *0103, *0201, *0301) correlated with higher levels. Most (93%, 65/70) relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles were IAA positive (mean = 360±63 SEM nU/ml). Only 7/12 relatives homozygous for lineage 4 alleles were IAA-positive, with lower levels than relatives with lineage 1-3 alleles (mean = 55±15 SEM nU/ml, P < 0.0001; 7/12 vs 65/70, P = 0.004). The amino acid sequences of lineage 1-3 alleles uniquely share glutamic acid (E) and phenylalanine (F) at positions 40 and 51 (EF alleles). Lineage 4 alleles have glycine (G) and leucine (L) at those positions (GL alleles). 90% (65/72) of IAA-positive relatives had an EF allele, while only 75% (54/72) had DR4 (P = 0.01). Homozygosity for GL alleles (often DQA1 *0501 on DR3 haplotypes) correlated with little or no humoral response to insulin. Thus, HLA-DQB1 GL alleles, or other genes on haplotypes (e.g., DR3) that carry these DQA1 alleles, may confer recessive low responsiveness to insulin.

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