A variety of different diseases affect the synovium, including infection, noninfectious immunologic inflammatory conditions, degenerative arthroses, crystal deposits, trauma, and tumors. Tumors of the synovium are relatively uncommon. Any mesenchymal tumor may arise in the synovium, but most recapitulate its normal counterpart including synoviocytes, blood vessels, fat, and fibrous tissue. These tumors can arise in any synovial lined structures both within joints and in extraarticular locations. Most synovial tumors are benign. Malignant tumors are rare but important to recognize because many are aggressive and must be treated appropriately. Among common nonneoplastic conditions that affect the synovium and surrounding structures are crystal deposits such as monosodium urate crystals, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, and hydroxyapatite crystals. These crystal deposits may be asymptomatic or cause severe pain or chronic joint destruction. Their accurate identification is important to guide appropriate therapy.
- Crystal deposition
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine