Tumor-induced suppression of CTL expansion and subjugation by gp96-lg vaccination

Taylor H. Schreiber, Vadim V. Deyev, Joseph D. Rosenblatt, Eckhard R. Podack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Established tumors suppress antitumor immune responses and induce tolerance by incompletely characterized mechanisms, and this phenomenon is an important barrier to tumor immunotherapy. Single vaccination with tumor cells expressing gp96-Ig stimulates robust expansion of tumor-specific CTLs in tumor-naive mice and this expansion is inhibited by established tumors. Interestingly, frequent vaccinations restore antitumor immune responses in the presence of established tumors. Syngeneic EG7 tumor-bearing mice have heterogeneous responses to frequent vaccination with EG7-gp96-Ig, with 32% complete responders and 68% partial responders. Comparison of responders to nonresponders revealed aninverse correlation between tumor-specific CTL expansion in the peripheral blood and tumor size. To identify immune cells and molecules associated with effective anti-tumor immune responses, reverse transcription-PCR arrays were performed using cells isolated from the vaccination site. ELISAs, cellular phenotyping, and tumor immunohistochemistry were also performed comparing vaccine responders to nonresponders. These data show that up-regulation of T-bet, ROHyt, IFNY, CCL8> CXCL9, and CXCLlO at the vaccination site are associated with vaccine-induced antitumor immunity. These data correlate with increased CTL expansion in the peripheral blood of responders, increased infiltration of responder tumors by CD8+ cells and interleukin-17+ cells, and decreased infiltration of responder tumors by CDllb+Gr-1+ cells and FoxP3+ cells. Furthermore, serum ELISAs revealed a significant elevation of transforming growth factor-ß in nonresponders as compared with responders. Interestingly, CD8+ T cells isolated from responders and nonresponders have equivalent cytotoxic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that established tumors may escape immuno-surveillance by preventing clonal expansion of tumor-specific CTL without inducing anergy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2026-2033
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 1 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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