OBJECTIVE - We studied the C-peptide response to oral glucose with progression to type 1 diabetes in Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) participants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Among 504 DPT-1 participants <15 years of age, longitudinal analyses were performed in 36 progressors and 80 nonprogressors. Progressors had oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) at baseline and every 6 months from 2.0 to 0.5 years before diagnosis; nonprogressors had OGTTs over similar intervals before their last visit. Sixty-six progressors and 192 nonprogressors were also studied proximal to and at diagnosis. RESULTS - The 30-0 min C-peptide difference from OGTTs performed 2.0 years before diagnosis in progressors was lower than the 30-0 min C-peptide difference from OGTTs performed 2.0 years before the last visit in nonprogressors (P<0.01) and remained lower over time. The 90-60 min C-peptide difference was positive at every OGTT before diagnosis in progressors, whereas it was negative at every OGTT before the last visit in nonprogressors (P < 0.01 at 2.0 years). The percentage whose peak C-peptide occurred at 120 min was higher in progressors at 2.0 years (P < 0.05); this persisted over time (P < 0.001 at 0.5 years). However, the peak C-peptide levels were only significantly lower at 0.5 years in progressors (P < 0.01). The timing of the peak C-peptide predicted type 1 diabetes (P < 0.001); peak C-peptide levels were less predictive (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS - A decreased early C-peptide response to oral glucose and an increased later response occur at least 2 years before the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing