Trends in hospitalizations and epidemiological characteristics of adults Moyamoya disorder in the United States

Smit D. Patel, Ninad Desai, Schweta Rane, Neel Patel, Rupak Desai, Tapan Mehta, Martin D. Ollenschleger, Anil Nanda, Robert M. Starke, Priyank Khandelwal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background and purpose: There has been an increasing prevalence of Moyamoya disorder (MMD) reported from recent US literature. There is a paucity of data available regarding trends of prevalence and epidemiological factors in the United States. To goal of this study was to test the hypotheses that racial-, sex-specific MMD hospitalizations and epidemiological factors have been increasing in the United States over the last decade. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2005 to 2016, MMD-related hospitalizations in patients aged ≥18 years were identified. Trends of epidemiological factors were analyzed over time using the linear regression model with the significance of differences in trend over time assessed using the Wald test. Sex- and race-specific burden of MMD were calculated using the annual US Census data. Joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate trends of hospitalizations over time. Results: A total of 24,484 adult hospitalizations were identified from January 2005 to September 2015 after excluding <18 years. Among them, approximately ~90% were aged ≤60 years, and 73.5% were females. The most common vascular and non-vascular presentations were ischemic stroke (17.3%) and seizures (21%), respectively. The trend of antithrombotic therapy has increased, while extracranial-intracranial bypass has remained stagnant. The actual average hospitalizations of MMD was 10.4 cases/ million population/year (range 4.1–17.9) and varied significantly by sex (females 14.7 [range 6.2–23.6] and males 5.9 [range 1.8–11.9]) over the 2005 to 2016 study period. The burden of hospitalizations also differed by race (African Americans 40.6 [range 32.8–63.7], Asians 24.8 [15.4–34.8], Non-Hispanic Whites 8.1 [range 6.4–11.5], and Hispanics 8.4 [2.8–12.8]) over the 2010 to 2016 study period. Joinpoint regression analysis showed an increasing overall MMD trend across the study period (+11.7%; P < 0.001), which was higher in males (+14.5% vs. +10.7%; P < 0.001). The Hispanic group had significantly increased hospitalizations over the years (+20.2%; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Although overall more prevalent in females, MMD-related hospitalizations are increasing more rapidly in males. Among the racial subpopulations, African Americans had the highest MMD-related hospitalizations, even higher than Asian Americans. MMD-related hospitalizations have increased quicker in Hispanics than in any other racial group.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number117165
JournalJournal of the Neurological Sciences
StatePublished - Dec 15 2020


  • EC-IC bypass
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Moyamoya disease
  • Moyamoya vasculopathy
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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