The treatment of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) with transplant has not been optimized. We retrospectively reviewed the data for 83 consecutive patients with CMML (47 with CMML-1/2 and 36 with CMML progressed to acute myeloid leukemia) who received an allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) at our institution between April 1991 and December 2013 to identify factors associated with improved survival and determine whether treatment with hypomethylating agents before transplant improves progression-free survival (PFS). The median age of the cohort was 57 years. Seventy-eight patients received induction treatment before transplant, with 37 receiving hypomethylating agents and 41 receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Patients treated with a hypomethylating agent had a significantly lower cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years post-transplant (22%) than those treated with other agents (35%; P = .03), whereas treatment-related mortality at 1 year post-transplant did not significantly differ between the groups (27% and 30%, respectively; P = .84). The lower relapse rate resulted in a significantly higher 3-year PFS rate in patients treated with a hypomethylating agent (43%) than in those treated with other agents (27%; P = .04). Our data support the use of hypomethylating agents before allo-SCT for patients with CMML to achieve morphologic remission and improve PFS of these patients. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
- Hypomethylating agents
- Myeloproliferative neoplasms
- Secondary acute myeloid leukemia
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