Treatment resistance, along with its sibling partial response, remains a common phenomenon in schizophrenia, complicating the disability burden inherent in the disease. Antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of treatment, and treatment resistance has mainly been defined in terms of poor response to antipsychotic medication. At the same time, clozapine, the most effective antipsychotic, remains underutilized at the expense of exposing patients to polypharmacy. We review known causes of disability in schizophrenia, how they impact various areas of everyday functioning, and discuss potential treatment options including but not limited to pharmacological approaches aimed at maximizing treatment response and reducing treatment resistance.
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