Treatment of Impetigo in the Pediatric Population: Consensus and Future Directions

Lawrence A. Schachner, Antonio Torrelo, Ayman Grada, Giuseppe Micali, Pearl C. Kwong, Gwenolyn B. Scott, Latanya Benjamin, Mercedes E. Gonzalez, Anneke Andriessen, Thomas Eberlein, Lawrence F. Eichenfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Impetigo is a common contagious superficial bacterial skin infection. Treatment of localized lesions can be achieved through topical antibiotics. Oral antibiotics are reserved for extensive disease. Increasing antimicrobial resistance to existing therapies have raised concerns. Antimicrobial stewardship, achieved through the responsible use of antibiotics, is an important measure to re-duce bacterial resistance. This review highlights treatment options for impetigo and shares consensus statements to help guide the management of impetigo in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: An expert panel of dermatologists and pediatricians convened in February 2019 to establish evidence-based consensus on the management of impetigo in the pediatric patient population. METHODS: The consensus was created in accordance with the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Prior to the consensus meeting, a systematic literature review was conducted, with the selected literature deemed clinically relevant to the consensus statements. Statements were further refined and assessed systematically following established standards. The consensus process consisted of a modified Delphi approach. The consensus was established through a minimal 75% “agree” rate. RESULTS: Thirteen consensus statements were developed addressing clinical challenges, existing treatment options and their limita-tions, and new therapeutic alternatives. CONCLUSION: Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in treating impetigo has been reported. Antimicrobial stewardship is critical to optimize patient outcomes and to prevent the development of resistance. Healthcare providers should be aware of local resistance patterns in impetigo to help guide therapy. The use of newer safe and effective topical antibiotic alternatives as a first-line treatment should be an important step in antimicrobial stewardship.J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(3): doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.4679.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-290
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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