Treatment of Impetigo and Antimicrobial Resistance

Lawrence A. Schachner, Charles W. Lynde, Leon H. Kircik, Antonio Torrelo, Daniel Hohl, Pearl Kwong, Vikash Oza, Anneke Andriessen, Adelaide A. Hebert

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Impetigo is a contagious bacterial infection that affects the superficial skin layers. Increasing worldwide antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to existing topical agents commonly prescribed to treat impetigo is central to treatment failure. The Worldwide Health Organization developed a global action plan on AMR, but omitted information about AMR stewardship programs for topical antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: The review aims to provide information to clinicians and stakeholders regarding AMR and antimicrobial stewardship on topical antimicrobial drugs for impetigo treatment. METHODS: The literature searches reviewed the status of AMR to current topical antibiotics in impetigo, current therapeutic behavior, and concordance with antimicrobial stewardship principles. Two international panels convened to discuss the output of the searches, and the results of the panel discussions were used in the development of the manuscript. RESULTS: The literature search included clinical trials, research studies, clinical guidelines, consensus papers, and reviews (if they provided original data), published between January 2008 and May 2019. The articles were selected based on clinical relevancy of impetigo management, clinical efficacy, and safety of the treatment and antimicrobial resistance. The searches resulted in one-hundred and ninety-eight articles. After applying the eligibility criteria, nineteen articles met inclusion criteria and were considered in the present review. CONCLUSIONS: While published antimicrobial stewardship guidelines have focused on systemic antibiotics, few studies have attempted to evaluate topical antibiotic prescribing practices for impetigo treatment. Many of the topical impetigo treatments currently in use have developed resistance. The appropriate use of topical ozenoxacin can help eradicate impetigo while minimizing AMR.J Drugs Dermatol. 20(4):366-372. doi:10.36849/JDD.5795.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)366-372
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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