Trauma in Iraq's Wars: Assessment and Management of Craniofacial Injury

Mahmood J. Al Bayati, Georges J. Samaha, Ahmed J. Al Bayati, Raja Kummoona, Mutaz B. Habal, Seth R. Thaller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


As the most prominent portion of the human body, the face embraces a multifaceted responsibility for functionality and survival while contributing to identity and self-image. Inopportunely, due to its distinctive anatomical location, the face as a unit is highly suspectable to trauma, particularly in warfare. As a result, facial injury creates a physical and psychological trauma that needs to be addressed immediately. In the following article, a detailed literature review was conducted to examine the interplay between facial injuries throughout multiple wars in Iraq and their management. The authors found a significant increase in facial injuries due to shell fragments corresponding with modern advances in warfare targeting mass casualties. The capacity to manage the magnitude and level of trauma observed in Iraq requires a substantial amount of resources and a systematic approach that unfortunately is unattainable in a country that is still struggling to rebuild after decades of oppression and war. Due to the circumstances, surgeons have to rely on training and experience to provide the best care for their patients and it is imperative that we continue to train our surgeons to rely on their skills and experience to ensure a high level of care with limited resources and lack of technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1434-1437
Number of pages4
JournalThe Journal of craniofacial surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


Dive into the research topics of 'Trauma in Iraq's Wars: Assessment and Management of Craniofacial Injury'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this