Trauma and depression

Kristin M. Penza, Christine Heim, Charles Nemeroff

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Considerable evidence exists to suggest that traumatic events contribute toward vulnerability for major depression throughout the lifespan (Brown & Harris, 1993; Finlay–Jones & Brown, 1981; Kendler, Karkowski, & Prescott, 1999). However, the timing of the trauma may constitute an especially important variable in the development of long–term vulnerabilities toward depression and other psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic events occurring early in life appear to result in persistent alterations in neurobiological stress systems, increasing one’s vulnerability to develop major depression. These early–life stress-induced changes include neuroendocrine, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical alterations. Increasing data derived from clinical and preclinical studies lend support to the view that these neurobiological changes associated with trauma experienced early in life occur after undue stress during particular critical developmental periods. These studies also support the important contribution of early-life traumas in the development of symptoms of depression and anxiety. In addition, this neurobiological vulnerability secondary to early–life trauma may permanently increase susceptibility to depression by rendering individuals more sensitive to stress throughout their adult life. Women are particularly vulnerable to depression; approximately twice as many women (12%) as men (7%) endure a depressive episode each year (Nolen-Hoeksema,; 1987). Lifetime risk of depression is also higher for women; 21% of women and 13% of men in the United States will experience an episode of major depression in their lifetime (Kessler et al., 1994). Higher exposure of women to early life trauma might contribute to this gender-related risk (Weiss, Longhurst, & Mazure, 1999).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationWomen and Depression: A Handbook for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages360-381
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)9780511841262, 0521831571, 9780521831574
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Depression
Wounds and Injuries
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Psychiatry
Anxiety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Penza, K. M., Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. (2006). Trauma and depression. In Women and Depression: A Handbook for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences (pp. 360-381). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841262.017

Trauma and depression. / Penza, Kristin M.; Heim, Christine; Nemeroff, Charles.

Women and Depression: A Handbook for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences. Cambridge University Press, 2006. p. 360-381.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Penza, KM, Heim, C & Nemeroff, C 2006, Trauma and depression. in Women and Depression: A Handbook for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences. Cambridge University Press, pp. 360-381. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841262.017
Penza KM, Heim C, Nemeroff C. Trauma and depression. In Women and Depression: A Handbook for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences. Cambridge University Press. 2006. p. 360-381 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841262.017
Penza, Kristin M. ; Heim, Christine ; Nemeroff, Charles. / Trauma and depression. Women and Depression: A Handbook for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences. Cambridge University Press, 2006. pp. 360-381
@inbook{abdc6c81177a4e2aa0f6765ac5e2fc80,
title = "Trauma and depression",
abstract = "Considerable evidence exists to suggest that traumatic events contribute toward vulnerability for major depression throughout the lifespan (Brown & Harris, 1993; Finlay–Jones & Brown, 1981; Kendler, Karkowski, & Prescott, 1999). However, the timing of the trauma may constitute an especially important variable in the development of long–term vulnerabilities toward depression and other psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic events occurring early in life appear to result in persistent alterations in neurobiological stress systems, increasing one’s vulnerability to develop major depression. These early–life stress-induced changes include neuroendocrine, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical alterations. Increasing data derived from clinical and preclinical studies lend support to the view that these neurobiological changes associated with trauma experienced early in life occur after undue stress during particular critical developmental periods. These studies also support the important contribution of early-life traumas in the development of symptoms of depression and anxiety. In addition, this neurobiological vulnerability secondary to early–life trauma may permanently increase susceptibility to depression by rendering individuals more sensitive to stress throughout their adult life. Women are particularly vulnerable to depression; approximately twice as many women (12{\%}) as men (7{\%}) endure a depressive episode each year (Nolen-Hoeksema,; 1987). Lifetime risk of depression is also higher for women; 21{\%} of women and 13{\%} of men in the United States will experience an episode of major depression in their lifetime (Kessler et al., 1994). Higher exposure of women to early life trauma might contribute to this gender-related risk (Weiss, Longhurst, & Mazure, 1999).",
author = "Penza, {Kristin M.} and Christine Heim and Charles Nemeroff",
year = "2006",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1017/CBO9780511841262.017",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780511841262",
pages = "360--381",
booktitle = "Women and Depression: A Handbook for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Trauma and depression

AU - Penza, Kristin M.

AU - Heim, Christine

AU - Nemeroff, Charles

PY - 2006/1/1

Y1 - 2006/1/1

N2 - Considerable evidence exists to suggest that traumatic events contribute toward vulnerability for major depression throughout the lifespan (Brown & Harris, 1993; Finlay–Jones & Brown, 1981; Kendler, Karkowski, & Prescott, 1999). However, the timing of the trauma may constitute an especially important variable in the development of long–term vulnerabilities toward depression and other psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic events occurring early in life appear to result in persistent alterations in neurobiological stress systems, increasing one’s vulnerability to develop major depression. These early–life stress-induced changes include neuroendocrine, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical alterations. Increasing data derived from clinical and preclinical studies lend support to the view that these neurobiological changes associated with trauma experienced early in life occur after undue stress during particular critical developmental periods. These studies also support the important contribution of early-life traumas in the development of symptoms of depression and anxiety. In addition, this neurobiological vulnerability secondary to early–life trauma may permanently increase susceptibility to depression by rendering individuals more sensitive to stress throughout their adult life. Women are particularly vulnerable to depression; approximately twice as many women (12%) as men (7%) endure a depressive episode each year (Nolen-Hoeksema,; 1987). Lifetime risk of depression is also higher for women; 21% of women and 13% of men in the United States will experience an episode of major depression in their lifetime (Kessler et al., 1994). Higher exposure of women to early life trauma might contribute to this gender-related risk (Weiss, Longhurst, & Mazure, 1999).

AB - Considerable evidence exists to suggest that traumatic events contribute toward vulnerability for major depression throughout the lifespan (Brown & Harris, 1993; Finlay–Jones & Brown, 1981; Kendler, Karkowski, & Prescott, 1999). However, the timing of the trauma may constitute an especially important variable in the development of long–term vulnerabilities toward depression and other psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic events occurring early in life appear to result in persistent alterations in neurobiological stress systems, increasing one’s vulnerability to develop major depression. These early–life stress-induced changes include neuroendocrine, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical alterations. Increasing data derived from clinical and preclinical studies lend support to the view that these neurobiological changes associated with trauma experienced early in life occur after undue stress during particular critical developmental periods. These studies also support the important contribution of early-life traumas in the development of symptoms of depression and anxiety. In addition, this neurobiological vulnerability secondary to early–life trauma may permanently increase susceptibility to depression by rendering individuals more sensitive to stress throughout their adult life. Women are particularly vulnerable to depression; approximately twice as many women (12%) as men (7%) endure a depressive episode each year (Nolen-Hoeksema,; 1987). Lifetime risk of depression is also higher for women; 21% of women and 13% of men in the United States will experience an episode of major depression in their lifetime (Kessler et al., 1994). Higher exposure of women to early life trauma might contribute to this gender-related risk (Weiss, Longhurst, & Mazure, 1999).

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=46249131459&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=46249131459&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/CBO9780511841262.017

DO - 10.1017/CBO9780511841262.017

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9780511841262

SN - 0521831571

SN - 9780521831574

SP - 360

EP - 381

BT - Women and Depression: A Handbook for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences

PB - Cambridge University Press

ER -