Background: This study evaluates differences in wound complication rate when transverse versus longitudinal incision is utilized to expose femoral vessels in managing patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods: A retrospective review from 2013 to 2015 was conducted of 150 patients undergoing 156 lower extremity revascularizations with femoral artery exposure through a groin incision. Patients were stratified into 2 groups, transverse versus longitudinal groin incision. Data were reviewed for 3 surgeons that utilize either transverse or longitudinal groin incision in patients undergoing common or iliofemoral endarterectomies, or where femoral artery was used as inflow and/or outflow vessel for limb revascularization. Each group had a comparative outcomes analysis based on incision type. The primary outcome was wound complication, defined as any wound infection, lymphocele, hematoma, dehiscence, pseudoaneurysm, or necrosis. Other outcomes studied included unplanned return to operating room for wound complication, wound vacuum therapy, and soft-tissue flap closure. Data were analyzed using 2-tailed chi-squared test and Student's t-test. Results: Patients in the transverse (n = 85 cases) versus longitudinal (n = 71 cases) cohorts were similar in relation to demographics and comorbidities. Overall mean follow-up was 220 days. Patients with a transverse as compared to longitudinal incision had a significantly lower overall wound complication rate, 7% vs. 42%, respectively (P < 0.001). Furthermore, transverse incisions were associated with lower incidence of unplanned return to the operating room to manage wound complications than patients with a longitudinal incision (5% vs. 23%, respectively; P < 0.001). Transverse versus longitudinal incisions were also associated with significantly lower need for wound vacuum therapy (6% vs. 15%, respectively; P < 0.05) and muscle flap closure (0% vs. 13%, respectively; P < 0.001) for wound complications. Conclusions: Transverse groin incisions for femoral artery exposure may offer a lower risk of wound complications for open procedures as compared to a longitudinal incision. While longitudinal incisions may have higher wound complication rates, incisional approach is contingent on anatomical circumstance and treated disease pattern. Patients should undergo appropriate preoperative counseling regarding wound healing in preparation for limb revascularization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine