Patients suffering from diseased or injured genitourinary organs are often treated with reconstructive surgery or transplants, but there is a severe shortage of donor tissue and organs. This shortage worsens yearly as modern medicine increases the human lifespan. The aging population grows, and the need for organs grows with it. Physicians and scientists have begun to look to the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to provide new options for these patients. These fields apply the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can significantly improve the quality of life of the urologic patient by eliminating the need for intensive grafting procedures or transplant surgery.
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