Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunting: Decreased Survival for Patients with High APACHE II Scores

Raymond A. Rubin, Ziv J. Haskal, Christopher B. O'Brien, Constantin Cope, Clifford A. Brass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


Objectives: To determine which clinical characteristics are associated with decreased survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS). Methods: Forty-nine consecutive patients were treated with TIPS; 46 of them had refractory variceal bleeding. Univariate statistics and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between clinical, biochemical, and hemodynamic variables and 30-day) survival. Results: Shunt insertion was successful in 48 (98.0%) of 49 cases. Median portal-systemic gradient was reduced from 22.5 (range 9-36) [median (5th- 95th percentile)] to 12 (range 4-20) mm Hg. Thirty (61.2%) of 49 patients survived more than 30 days; four patients died more than 30 days after TIPS in mean follow-up of 8.4 months. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between those who survived more than 30 days and those who did not, with respect to preprocedural prothrombin time, bilirubin, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, and treatment with vasopressin and nitrates, balloon tamponade, or mechanical ventilation. Whereas there were no significant differences between the pre- and post-TIPS portal vein pressures and portal- systemic gradients in survivors and non-survivors, the pre- and post-TIPS hepatic vein pressures were significantly lower in survivors. Survival was inversely proportional to Child-Pugh class (p < 0.01) and to APACHE II score (p < 0.01). The single determinant most closely associated with decreased survival in the month after TIPS was the APACHE II score, a score of 18 stratifying patients into those at low and high risk of mortality [odds ratio 21.7 (CI 3.6-131.7)]. Only 1 (7.7%) of 13 patients with Child-Pugh C cirrhosis and an APACHE II score exceeding 18 survived more than 30 days. Conclusions: Patients with advanced cirrhosis, especially those with high pre-TIPS APACHE II scores, are at high risk for reduced survival after TIPS, despite adequate portal decompression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)556-563
Number of pages8
JournalThe American journal of gastroenterology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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