Transfusion transmission of retroviruses: human T‐lymphotropic virus types I and II compared with human immunodeficiency virus type 1

J. W. Mosley, H. Lee, E. A. Operskalski, G. M. Shaw, S. H. Kleinman, M. P. Busch, C. E. Stevens, E. R. Schiff, M. J. Nowicki, C. G. Hollingsworth

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Abstract

Background: The incidence of transfusion transmission of human T- lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and HTLV type II (HTLV-II) has not been compared directly or to that of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The effects of refrigerator storage of the blood component on infectivity of the viruses needs definition. Study Design and Methods: The circumstances influencing the transmission of HTLV-I, HTLV-II, and HIV-1 via blood of donors whose sera were stored in a repository and who were retrospectively documented as having been infected at blood donation were examined. Confirmation and typing of anti-HTLV positivity in donors and recipients used polymerase chain reaction, supplemented by specific peptide testing. Results: Overall, 27 percent (26/95) of the recipients of blood components from anti- HTLV-I- and -II-positive donors became infected (9 with HTLV-I and 17 with HTLV-II). No recipients of acellular blood components became infected with HTLV-I or -II. There was no probable transmission by components stored >10 days. The rates of transmission for both viruses were similar: 0 to 5 days' storage, 17 (74%) of 23; 6 to 10 days, 8 (44%) of 18; and 11 to 14, 0 (0%) of 10 (trend, p = 0.0002). In comparison, 89 percent (112/126) of the recipients of anti-HIV-1-positive blood were infected regardless of component type, and no effect on transmission occurred with storage for <26 days. Conclusion: Transfusion-transmitted HTLV-I and -II are similar. The data suggest that a donor's lymphocytes become noninfectious when they lose the ability to be activated or to proliferate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)478-483
Number of pages6
JournalTransfusion
Volume34
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1994

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Hematology

Cite this

Mosley, J. W., Lee, H., Operskalski, E. A., Shaw, G. M., Kleinman, S. H., Busch, M. P., Stevens, C. E., Schiff, E. R., Nowicki, M. J., & Hollingsworth, C. G. (1994). Transfusion transmission of retroviruses: human T‐lymphotropic virus types I and II compared with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Transfusion, 34(6), 478-483. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1537-2995.1994.34694295061.x