Altered responsiveness to extracellular signals and cell cycle dysregulation are hallmarks of cancer. The cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) that integrate mitogenic and growth inhibitory signals. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β mediates G1 cell cycle arrest by inducing or activating cdk inhibitors, and by inhibiting factors required for cdk activation. Mechanisms that lead to cell cycle arrest by TGF-β are reviewed. Loss of growth inhibition by TGF-β occurs early in breast cell transformation, and may contribute to breast cancer progression. Dysregulation of cell cycle effectors at many different levels may contribute to loss of G1 arrest by TGF-β. Elucidation of these pathways in breast cancer may ultimately lead to novel and more effective treatments for this disease.
- Breast cancer
- Cell cycle
- Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor
- Human mammary epithelial cells
- Transforming growth factor-β
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research